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the village of romulus

palatine hill, rome, 8th century bce, wattle and daub construction; treated as shrine to the earlier settlements of rome

model and plan of a typical etruscan temple

6th century bce, from a description by vitruvius

apollo (apulo)

from veii, 510 bce, terra-cotta

new york kouros

590-580 bce

temple of jupiter capitolinus

rome, 509 BCE, for jupiter/juno/minerva

temple of portunus

rome, 75 bce, travertine and tufa; built on banks of tiber river; marriage of greek and etruscan design

opus caementicium

hydraulic-setting cement, brick-faced, pozzolana (volcanic) sand

temple of vesta or hercules victor

rome, mid-second century bce, tholos, manubial

sanctuary of hercules

tivoli,italy, 50 bce, brick-faced concrete, arches of the portico

sanctuary of fortuna

palestrina, italy, late 2nd century bce, built into 17th century palace; terraces and ramps; spooky/magical atmosphere; has hemicycles; barrel vault in concrete

house of the faun

pompeii, 2nd century bce-79 ce; eponymous bronze statuette of a faun in the tuscan atrium; series of mosaics: scene of the nile, dionysos on a tiger


aule metele, 90-70 BCE, bronze

st. ildefonso group

school of pasiteles, 25 bce, marble, head of antinous added in 2nd century ce

apollo sauroktonos

praxiteles, 4th century bce

head of the doryphoros

polykleitos, 5th century bce

archaistic female figure

early 5th century bce

orestes and electra

school of pasiteles,50-25 bce, marble

portrait of a man from otricoli

50 bce, republican period verism

head of an old man from osimo, italy

mid 1st century bce, marble

portrait of a woman from palombara sabina

30s bce


from delos, house of the diadoumenos, early 1st century bce


polykleitos, 450 bce


polykleitos, 450 bce

portrait of a general from tivoli

75-50 bce

man with busts of ancestors (barberini togatus)

late 1st century bce

portrait of pompey "the great"

rome, copy of an original from 50 bce, marble

bronze coin of pompey

46-45 bce

portrait of alexander the great

pella, macedonia, 330 bce

theater of pompey, temple of venus victrix

rome, 55 bce, manubial product of pompey's triple triumph in the mediterranean, mosaic portrait made of pearls, 1st permanent theater in rome, concrete and travertine and luxurious imported marbles

the death of caesar

juan-leon gerome, 1867; body of caesar is at the foot of statue of pompey

monument of aemilius paulus

battle of pydna, 168 bce, delphi,greece; formerly monument of king perseus of macedon

altar of domitius ahenobarbus

late 2nd or early 1st century bce; scenes of the wedding of neptune and amphritrite; nothing to do with altar or dom. aheno.; some reliefs are myhological-hellenistic while others are roman in style; together they all show the blending of greek and roman style

Gigantomachy scene from the Great Altar

pergamon, turkey, 180 bce; how to be a good roman: worship mars, take part in the census; everyday life; bull/sheep/pig sacrifice; animals are unusually big; people are wearing roman dress

portrait of julius caesar

44 bce, green basalt; possibly a forgery because of irises/pupils; material shows power and alludes to lover cleopatra

denarius with portrait of julius caesar

silver, "dictator perpetuo", 44 bce; 1st time a living roman was put on a coin; hellenistic-kingdom to do this on a coin

plan of the forum of caesar

forum julium, rome, begun 54 bce, temple of venus genetrix

temple of venus genetrix

vowed 48 bce, dedicated 46 bce, forum portico; displayed statues of nymphs, alexander the great, caesar, and later tiberius; octistyle but seems rectangular, interior frieze is erotes (cupids) with spoils of war = love and war

plan of a typical roman house (domus)

2nd and 1st centuries bce; fauces, atrium, impluvium, cubiculum, tablinum, triclinium, peristyle

house of the vettii

atrium: compluvium and impluvium; 2nd cent bce, rebuilt 3rd quarter of 1st century ce, peristyle garden has statuettes of dionysos

house of the sallust 3rd cent bce

pompeii; bordered by small 1 room shops that were many times owned by house owners

house of the sallust 1st cent bce

pompeii, many changes, more complex, lots of garden and entertainment space

painting and statue of god priapos

in house of the vettii; god of fertility and material wealth/prosperity, bag of money and his penis on scales

alexander mosaic

house of the faun, early 1st century bce mosaic copy of a hellenistic painting

villa of the mysteries

pompeii, early 2nd century bce; enter house into peristyle then atrium, rustic/functional aspect, olive oil press in a room, built on a terrace

house of octavius quartio

pompeii, 62-79 ce; mix between domus and villa, huge garden; canals and fountains surrounded by statuettes, outdoor dining area; statuettes of dionysos and a lion attacking an antelope

villa of the papyri

herculaneum; known for carbonized scrolls, 2 peristyles, luxurious

samnite house painting

herculaneum, 2nd cent bce, reproduces a wall made of blocks of different colors of marble; brick concrete covered in plaster and painting blocks with molded seams that create texture/relief

house of the griffins fresco

palatine hill, rome, 100-80 bce, early 2nd style example, imitations and illusionistic columns

villa of publius fannius synistor

boscoreale, 40-50 bce; room of the masks

house of augustus

palatine hill, rome, 30-25 bce; illusionistic architecture motifs, reduction in color palette, each wall divided in 3 part structure with door and flanking windows

villa of vivia

gardenscape, primaporta, italy, 30-20 bce; depth illusion; animals don't coexist in nature

villa A - oplontis

discovered 1950s, huge collection of marble sculptures, eclectic in subject matter, wall painting detailed and artistic

dionysiac mystery rites

villa of the mystery rites, pompeii, 60-50 bce, frescoes show signs of rites, stage and illusionistic characteristics, over life-size figures

red room and black rooms

villa of agrippa postumus, boscotrecase, italy, 10 bce; red: no view of distant space, like an art gallery; black: architecture couldn't exist in nature on walls

ixion and penthius rooms

house of the vettii, pompeii, 62-79 ce, brings all styles together, presence of mythological paintings, illusionistic windows

sestertius with portraits of divus julius and octavian

37-31 bce; octavian declares caesar god on coin and he is son of god; has a beard of mourning

portrait of octavian

arles, 37 bce; young man with beard of mourning, prototype for future portraits, source of propaganda, lobster claw hairstyle

portrait of augustus wearing corona civica

early 1st century ce, marble; bust likely fitted onto larger body, lobster claw hair, young man

augustus as imperator

primaporta, tiberian copy from 15 ce of augustan original from 20 bce; marble because of tripod; pose tells us of social programs, cupid mythological allusion, dolphin is rivals symbol, can see irises; breast plate: sky, sun, dawn, barbarian personifications, augustus and a parthian, apollo and diana, mother earth

augustus as pontifex maximus

after 12 bce; toga on head means hallowed ground or ritual, head is carved separately from body

livia from the fayum

egypt, after 4 ce; typical; hairstyle she made popular, idealized, large eyes but other features small

livia in basalt

late 30s bce, dense and hard stone means lack of detail, material adds expense

posthumous portraits of livia

50s ce; forever young; idealized; hair style changes even after she's died

lucius and gaius

grandsons of augustus; corinth, greece, heroic nudity is eastern greek; lobster style hair is dynastic commemoration

portrait of gaius caesar

from julian basilica, corinth, greece, 13-9 bce

mausoleum of augustus

begun 28 bce, rome, campus martius, centrally planned, tholos (gilded bronze statue) of augustus on top, obelisks that allude to egypt, bronze plaque with autobiography, prototype may be etruscan tumulus tombs from cerveten, mound version = etruscan, reconstruction with trees = what architecture is capable of

pyramid of gaius cestius

15-12 bce, rome, post battle of actium, egpytian art = egyptomania, solid travertine, underground chamber with 2nd style wall paintings

tomb of marcus vergilius eurysaces

the baker's tomb, rome, late 1st century bce; prime real esate, unusual form with unknown prototype, porthole and cylinder column things, autobio narrative frieze at the top, talks about bread making; he was a baker for the roman army, shows he didn't cheat them

Ara Pacis Augustae

altar of the augustan peace; rome; 13-9 bce, maybe from luna (carrara) = quarry that most augustinian things are made from; alludes to greek but italian origin; ties together augustinian ideology; altar = for animal ritual and sacrifice; marble interior; fence and garlands = religious rustic shrine in nature; garlands are a botanical impossibility; acanthus scrolls goes around entire lower level of exterior wall; swans on scrolls is a physical impossibility; south and north frieze are the procession of imperial family; children being children on north and south frieze was unusual; very roman friezes; east and west = mythological; relief of tellus (earth) or pax (peace): more aristocrats, animals mean sacrifice and coexisting aka augustine peace, ketos sea serpent means eace on land, water, and sky

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