69 terms

art history exam 1

the village of romulus
palatine hill, rome, 8th century bce, wattle and daub construction; treated as shrine to the earlier settlements of rome
model and plan of a typical etruscan temple
6th century bce, from a description by vitruvius
apollo (apulo)
from veii, 510 bce, terra-cotta
new york kouros
590-580 bce
temple of jupiter capitolinus
rome, 509 BCE, for jupiter/juno/minerva
temple of portunus
rome, 75 bce, travertine and tufa; built on banks of tiber river; marriage of greek and etruscan design
opus caementicium
hydraulic-setting cement, brick-faced, pozzolana (volcanic) sand
temple of vesta or hercules victor
rome, mid-second century bce, tholos, manubial
sanctuary of hercules
tivoli,italy, 50 bce, brick-faced concrete, arches of the portico
sanctuary of fortuna
palestrina, italy, late 2nd century bce, built into 17th century palace; terraces and ramps; spooky/magical atmosphere; has hemicycles; barrel vault in concrete
house of the faun
pompeii, 2nd century bce-79 ce; eponymous bronze statuette of a faun in the tuscan atrium; series of mosaics: scene of the nile, dionysos on a tiger
aule metele, 90-70 BCE, bronze
st. ildefonso group
school of pasiteles, 25 bce, marble, head of antinous added in 2nd century ce
apollo sauroktonos
praxiteles, 4th century bce
head of the doryphoros
polykleitos, 5th century bce
archaistic female figure
early 5th century bce
orestes and electra
school of pasiteles,50-25 bce, marble
portrait of a man from otricoli
50 bce, republican period verism
head of an old man from osimo, italy
mid 1st century bce, marble
portrait of a woman from palombara sabina
30s bce
from delos, house of the diadoumenos, early 1st century bce
polykleitos, 450 bce
polykleitos, 450 bce
portrait of a general from tivoli
75-50 bce
man with busts of ancestors (barberini togatus)
late 1st century bce
portrait of pompey "the great"
rome, copy of an original from 50 bce, marble
bronze coin of pompey
46-45 bce
portrait of alexander the great
pella, macedonia, 330 bce
theater of pompey, temple of venus victrix
rome, 55 bce, manubial product of pompey's triple triumph in the mediterranean, mosaic portrait made of pearls, 1st permanent theater in rome, concrete and travertine and luxurious imported marbles
the death of caesar
juan-leon gerome, 1867; body of caesar is at the foot of statue of pompey
monument of aemilius paulus
battle of pydna, 168 bce, delphi,greece; formerly monument of king perseus of macedon
altar of domitius ahenobarbus
late 2nd or early 1st century bce; scenes of the wedding of neptune and amphritrite; nothing to do with altar or dom. aheno.; some reliefs are myhological-hellenistic while others are roman in style; together they all show the blending of greek and roman style
Gigantomachy scene from the Great Altar
pergamon, turkey, 180 bce; how to be a good roman: worship mars, take part in the census; everyday life; bull/sheep/pig sacrifice; animals are unusually big; people are wearing roman dress
portrait of julius caesar
44 bce, green basalt; possibly a forgery because of irises/pupils; material shows power and alludes to lover cleopatra
denarius with portrait of julius caesar
silver, "dictator perpetuo", 44 bce; 1st time a living roman was put on a coin; hellenistic-kingdom to do this on a coin
plan of the forum of caesar
forum julium, rome, begun 54 bce, temple of venus genetrix
temple of venus genetrix
vowed 48 bce, dedicated 46 bce, forum portico; displayed statues of nymphs, alexander the great, caesar, and later tiberius; octistyle but seems rectangular, interior frieze is erotes (cupids) with spoils of war = love and war
plan of a typical roman house (domus)
2nd and 1st centuries bce; fauces, atrium, impluvium, cubiculum, tablinum, triclinium, peristyle
house of the vettii
atrium: compluvium and impluvium; 2nd cent bce, rebuilt 3rd quarter of 1st century ce, peristyle garden has statuettes of dionysos
house of the sallust 3rd cent bce
pompeii; bordered by small 1 room shops that were many times owned by house owners
house of the sallust 1st cent bce
pompeii, many changes, more complex, lots of garden and entertainment space
painting and statue of god priapos
in house of the vettii; god of fertility and material wealth/prosperity, bag of money and his penis on scales
alexander mosaic
house of the faun, early 1st century bce mosaic copy of a hellenistic painting
villa of the mysteries
pompeii, early 2nd century bce; enter house into peristyle then atrium, rustic/functional aspect, olive oil press in a room, built on a terrace
house of octavius quartio
pompeii, 62-79 ce; mix between domus and villa, huge garden; canals and fountains surrounded by statuettes, outdoor dining area; statuettes of dionysos and a lion attacking an antelope
villa of the papyri
herculaneum; known for carbonized scrolls, 2 peristyles, luxurious
samnite house painting
herculaneum, 2nd cent bce, reproduces a wall made of blocks of different colors of marble; brick concrete covered in plaster and painting blocks with molded seams that create texture/relief
house of the griffins fresco
palatine hill, rome, 100-80 bce, early 2nd style example, imitations and illusionistic columns
villa of publius fannius synistor
boscoreale, 40-50 bce; room of the masks
house of augustus
palatine hill, rome, 30-25 bce; illusionistic architecture motifs, reduction in color palette, each wall divided in 3 part structure with door and flanking windows
villa of vivia
gardenscape, primaporta, italy, 30-20 bce; depth illusion; animals don't coexist in nature
villa A - oplontis
discovered 1950s, huge collection of marble sculptures, eclectic in subject matter, wall painting detailed and artistic
dionysiac mystery rites
villa of the mystery rites, pompeii, 60-50 bce, frescoes show signs of rites, stage and illusionistic characteristics, over life-size figures
red room and black rooms
villa of agrippa postumus, boscotrecase, italy, 10 bce; red: no view of distant space, like an art gallery; black: architecture couldn't exist in nature on walls
ixion and penthius rooms
house of the vettii, pompeii, 62-79 ce, brings all styles together, presence of mythological paintings, illusionistic windows
sestertius with portraits of divus julius and octavian
37-31 bce; octavian declares caesar god on coin and he is son of god; has a beard of mourning
portrait of octavian
arles, 37 bce; young man with beard of mourning, prototype for future portraits, source of propaganda, lobster claw hairstyle
portrait of augustus wearing corona civica
early 1st century ce, marble; bust likely fitted onto larger body, lobster claw hair, young man
augustus as imperator
primaporta, tiberian copy from 15 ce of augustan original from 20 bce; marble because of tripod; pose tells us of social programs, cupid mythological allusion, dolphin is rivals symbol, can see irises; breast plate: sky, sun, dawn, barbarian personifications, augustus and a parthian, apollo and diana, mother earth
augustus as pontifex maximus
after 12 bce; toga on head means hallowed ground or ritual, head is carved separately from body
livia from the fayum
egypt, after 4 ce; typical; hairstyle she made popular, idealized, large eyes but other features small
livia in basalt
late 30s bce, dense and hard stone means lack of detail, material adds expense
posthumous portraits of livia
50s ce; forever young; idealized; hair style changes even after she's died
lucius and gaius
grandsons of augustus; corinth, greece, heroic nudity is eastern greek; lobster style hair is dynastic commemoration
portrait of gaius caesar
from julian basilica, corinth, greece, 13-9 bce
mausoleum of augustus
begun 28 bce, rome, campus martius, centrally planned, tholos (gilded bronze statue) of augustus on top, obelisks that allude to egypt, bronze plaque with autobiography, prototype may be etruscan tumulus tombs from cerveten, mound version = etruscan, reconstruction with trees = what architecture is capable of
pyramid of gaius cestius
15-12 bce, rome, post battle of actium, egpytian art = egyptomania, solid travertine, underground chamber with 2nd style wall paintings
tomb of marcus vergilius eurysaces
the baker's tomb, rome, late 1st century bce; prime real esate, unusual form with unknown prototype, porthole and cylinder column things, autobio narrative frieze at the top, talks about bread making; he was a baker for the roman army, shows he didn't cheat them
Ara Pacis Augustae
altar of the augustan peace; rome; 13-9 bce, maybe from luna (carrara) = quarry that most augustinian things are made from; alludes to greek but italian origin; ties together augustinian ideology; altar = for animal ritual and sacrifice; marble interior; fence and garlands = religious rustic shrine in nature; garlands are a botanical impossibility; acanthus scrolls goes around entire lower level of exterior wall; swans on scrolls is a physical impossibility; south and north frieze are the procession of imperial family; children being children on north and south frieze was unusual; very roman friezes; east and west = mythological; relief of tellus (earth) or pax (peace): more aristocrats, animals mean sacrifice and coexisting aka augustine peace, ketos sea serpent means eace on land, water, and sky