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35 terms

Criminal justice chapter 2

cj
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Beccaria
Known as the founder of classical criminology because his theories about crime marked the beginning of a new approach to criminological thought that would eventually lead to modern theories.Fundamental for 6th and 8th Amm.
basic premise of the classical theory of criminology
criminal behavior is a matter of free will and choice and that certain, swift, and appropriate pain will deter people from criminal behavior
Jeremy Bentham
Credited with the formation of the neoclassical school of criminology, with the basic foundation that the concept that criminal behavior is a matter of free will and the choice to commit criminal behavior can be deterred by pain and punishment.
Major difference
Bentham believed Beccaria was too strict
Crime
is a matter of free will and a choice based on the weighing of potential pleasure and pain
Criminology
The interdisciplinary study of crime and the impact of crime on society and the criminal justice system
First theories on Crime
Religion was directly related to government, religion guided, Italian or England. you would drive the evil out
Classical Crim.
The age of enlightenment
Beccaria punishment
Necessary-punishment should fit the crime. Minimal-punishment should fit the crime. Proportional- punishment should fit the crime.
Beccaria
Harsh punishment is not a detterent, let punihsment fit the crime.
Age of Enlightenment
Bentham. free will motivated toward pleasure. Gain vs. Pain. He deisgned his own form of prison, where there was little a circle thingy.
Cesare Lombroso
Father of CRIMINOLOGY. he was greatly influences by Darwin. he believed that criminals could be identified based on their physical traits.
Psychological positivism
psychological theory, is like the ego and superego. the concept that behavior is not a matter of free will but is controlled by subconscious desires, which includes the idea that criminal behavior is a result of unresolved internal conflict and guit
Freudian theory
crime is a symptom of a person's unresolved psychological conflict. unfilled sexual desires, unhappy personality.
Signs of trouble
animal abuse
Social Disorganization
Zones of transition, the concentric zone theory. crime is centralized in the middle of the city and works its way out.
Social disorganization
crimes in mostly the area of change. crime in mostly in areas of transition.
strain theory
crime is a direct result of lower-class frustration and anger. a feeling of depression. a crime is a direct result of something. You are working hard, but you cant get what you want so you attempt something illegal.
Merton's 5 modes of personality adaptation
CONFORMIST. INOVATOR. RITUALIST. RETREATISM. REBEL.
Conformist
they will never succeed, and they never work it out, but they will never break the law
Innovator
criminal, a way around the systems, fraud. Small or large.
Ritualistic
A type of person every day, will rub the lukcy frog foot, goes to church play the lottery, certain method to picking their numbers
Retreatism
retreats from society, or from reality through substance abuse drugs or drinking. then getting into selling drugs and violence, accidents under the influence
rebel
people who want to redefine things that are happening. hippies. terrorists, wealth, power, and success.
Robert Agnew
General strain theory- removable of positive stimuli, and introduction of negative stimuli.
Crime
Crime is learned.
Social bond theory
Crime takes place when bonds to society are broken, when bonds to society are weakened.
Feminist Criminology
Gender based inequality, feminist criminology studies
Index Crimes
Major felonies, a felony carries punishment of more than 1 year in prison.
Random Crime
It is all about luck
6th Amendment
right to a speedy trial
8th Amendment
excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
Classical school thoeries
the school of thought that individuals have free will to choose whether or not to commit crimes and that criminals should have rights in the cj system
neoclassical school theories
difference if the beliefs that there are mitigating circumstances for criminal acts, such as the age of mental capacity
zone theory
social environments based on status differences, including poverty, lack of schooling causes probems