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53 terms

Unit 5 Vocabulary (Chapters 18-23)

I'm only doing the first few words of each definition! I got lazy and didn't finish, someone do the rest please?
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Catherine the Great
German-born Russian tsarina; combined receptivity
Cossacks
peasant-adventurers with agricultural and military skills
Ivan III (the Great)
Prince of the Duchy of Moscow; responsible for the freeing Russia from the Mongols
Ivan IV (the Terrible)
confirmed power of the tsarist autocracy by attacking the authority of boyars; continued policy of expansion
Obruk
labor obligations of Russian peasants owed either to their landlords or to the state
Old Believers
conservative Russians who refused to accept the ecclesiastical reforms of Alexis Romanov
Peter I (the Great)
tsar from 1689 to 1725; continued growth of absolutism and conquest; sought to change selected aspects
Pugachev Rebellion
unsuccessful peasant rising led by Cossack Emelyan Pugachev
Third Rome
Russian claim to be the successor of the Roman and Byzantine Empires
Time of Troubles
early 17th century period of the boyar efforts to regain power and foreign invasion following the death without an heir of Ivan IV
Akbar
son and successor of Humayn; built up the military and administrative structure of the dynasty
Abbas I, the Great
Safavid shah (1587-1629); extended the empire to its greatest extent; used Western military technology
Chaldiran
an important battle between the Safavids and the Ottomans in 1514; Ottoman victory demonstrated the importance of firearms
Din-i-llahi
religion initiated by Akbar
Imams
Shi'a religious leaders who traced their descent to Ali's successors
Janissaries
conscripted youths from conquered regions who were trained as Ottoman infantry divisions
Mullahs
religious leaders under the Safavids; worked to convert
Sati
ritual burning of high-caste Hindu women
Taj Mahal
mausoleum for Mumtaz Mahal, built by her husband Shah Jahan--happy valentines day!
Vizier
head of the Ottoman bureaucracy; after the 15th century often more powerful than the sultan
Asantehene
title, created by Osei Tutu, of the civil and religious ruler of Asante
Factories
trading stations with resident merchants established by the Portuguese and other Europeans
Great Trek
movement inland during the 1830s of the Dutch-ancestry settlers in South Africa seeking to escape their British colonial government
Indies Piece
a unit in the complex exchange system of the West African trade; based on the value of an adult male slave
Middle Passage
slave voyage from Africa to the Americas
Obeah
African religious practices in the British American islands
Shaka
ruler among the Nguni peoples of southeast Africa
Suriname Maroons
descendants of 18th century runaway slaves who found permanent refuge in the rainforests
Triangular Trade
complex commercial pattern linking Africa, the Americas, and Europe
William Wilberforce
British reformer who led the abolitionist movement that ended the British slave trade
Edo
Tokugawa capital, modern-day Tokyo
Hongwu
first Ming emperor (1368-1403); drove out the Mongols and resotred the position of scholar-gentry
Macao and Canton
the only two port cities in Ming China where Europeans were allowed to trade
Manchus
Jurchen people from region to the morthast of the Chinese empire; seized power and created the Qing dynasty
Robert Di Nobli
Italian Jesuit active in India during the early 1600s; failed in a policy of first converting indigenous elites
School of National Learning
18th century idealogy that emphasized Japan's unique historical experience and the revival of indigenous culture
Tokugawa Ieyasu
vassal of Toyotomi Hideyoshi; succeeded him as the most powerful military figure in Japan
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
general under Nobunaga; succeeded as a leading military power in central Japan; continued efforts to break power of the daiymos
Francis Xavier
Franciscan missionary who worked in India during the 1540s among outcast and lower caste groups
Zheng He
Chinese admiral who led seven overseas trade expeditions under Ming emperor Yunglo
American Exceptionalism
historical argument that the development of the US was largely individualistic
Chartist Movement
unsuccessful attempt by British artisans and workers to gain the vote
Congress of Vienna
met in 1815 after the defeat of France to restore
Factory system
intensification of all the processes of productuib at a single site during the Industrial Revolution
Liberalism
political idealogy that flourished in the 19th century western Europe; stressed limited state interference in private life
Luddites
workers in Britain who responded to the replacement of their labor by machines during the Industrial Revolution
Karl Marx
German socialist who saw history as a class struggle between groups out of power and those controlling the means of production
Pronto Industrialization
preliminary shifts away from an agricultural economy
Radicals
followers of a 19th century western European political emphasis: advocated broader voting rights than liberals, urged reforms
Revisionism
socialist thought that disagreed with Marx's formulation; believed that social and economic progress could be achieved
Socialism
political idealogy in 19th century Europe; attacked private property in the name of equality
Social question
issues relating to workers and women, in western Europe during the Industrial Revoliton
Transformismo
political system in Italy that allied conservative and liberals in support of the status quo