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I'm only doing the first few words of each definition! I got lazy and didn't finish, someone do the rest please?

Catherine the Great

German-born Russian tsarina; combined receptivity


peasant-adventurers with agricultural and military skills

Ivan III (the Great)

Prince of the Duchy of Moscow; responsible for the freeing Russia from the Mongols

Ivan IV (the Terrible)

confirmed power of the tsarist autocracy by attacking the authority of boyars; continued policy of expansion


labor obligations of Russian peasants owed either to their landlords or to the state

Old Believers

conservative Russians who refused to accept the ecclesiastical reforms of Alexis Romanov

Peter I (the Great)

tsar from 1689 to 1725; continued growth of absolutism and conquest; sought to change selected aspects

Pugachev Rebellion

unsuccessful peasant rising led by Cossack Emelyan Pugachev

Third Rome

Russian claim to be the successor of the Roman and Byzantine Empires

Time of Troubles

early 17th century period of the boyar efforts to regain power and foreign invasion following the death without an heir of Ivan IV


son and successor of Humayn; built up the military and administrative structure of the dynasty

Abbas I, the Great

Safavid shah (1587-1629); extended the empire to its greatest extent; used Western military technology


an important battle between the Safavids and the Ottomans in 1514; Ottoman victory demonstrated the importance of firearms


religion initiated by Akbar


Shi'a religious leaders who traced their descent to Ali's successors


conscripted youths from conquered regions who were trained as Ottoman infantry divisions


religious leaders under the Safavids; worked to convert


ritual burning of high-caste Hindu women

Taj Mahal

mausoleum for Mumtaz Mahal, built by her husband Shah Jahan--happy valentines day!


head of the Ottoman bureaucracy; after the 15th century often more powerful than the sultan


title, created by Osei Tutu, of the civil and religious ruler of Asante


trading stations with resident merchants established by the Portuguese and other Europeans

Great Trek

movement inland during the 1830s of the Dutch-ancestry settlers in South Africa seeking to escape their British colonial government

Indies Piece

a unit in the complex exchange system of the West African trade; based on the value of an adult male slave

Middle Passage

slave voyage from Africa to the Americas


African religious practices in the British American islands


ruler among the Nguni peoples of southeast Africa

Suriname Maroons

descendants of 18th century runaway slaves who found permanent refuge in the rainforests

Triangular Trade

complex commercial pattern linking Africa, the Americas, and Europe

William Wilberforce

British reformer who led the abolitionist movement that ended the British slave trade


Tokugawa capital, modern-day Tokyo


first Ming emperor (1368-1403); drove out the Mongols and resotred the position of scholar-gentry

Macao and Canton

the only two port cities in Ming China where Europeans were allowed to trade


Jurchen people from region to the morthast of the Chinese empire; seized power and created the Qing dynasty

Robert Di Nobli

Italian Jesuit active in India during the early 1600s; failed in a policy of first converting indigenous elites

School of National Learning

18th century idealogy that emphasized Japan's unique historical experience and the revival of indigenous culture

Tokugawa Ieyasu

vassal of Toyotomi Hideyoshi; succeeded him as the most powerful military figure in Japan

Toyotomi Hideyoshi

general under Nobunaga; succeeded as a leading military power in central Japan; continued efforts to break power of the daiymos

Francis Xavier

Franciscan missionary who worked in India during the 1540s among outcast and lower caste groups

Zheng He

Chinese admiral who led seven overseas trade expeditions under Ming emperor Yunglo

American Exceptionalism

historical argument that the development of the US was largely individualistic

Chartist Movement

unsuccessful attempt by British artisans and workers to gain the vote

Congress of Vienna

met in 1815 after the defeat of France to restore

Factory system

intensification of all the processes of productuib at a single site during the Industrial Revolution


political idealogy that flourished in the 19th century western Europe; stressed limited state interference in private life


workers in Britain who responded to the replacement of their labor by machines during the Industrial Revolution

Karl Marx

German socialist who saw history as a class struggle between groups out of power and those controlling the means of production

Pronto Industrialization

preliminary shifts away from an agricultural economy


followers of a 19th century western European political emphasis: advocated broader voting rights than liberals, urged reforms


socialist thought that disagreed with Marx's formulation; believed that social and economic progress could be achieved


political idealogy in 19th century Europe; attacked private property in the name of equality

Social question

issues relating to workers and women, in western Europe during the Industrial Revoliton


political system in Italy that allied conservative and liberals in support of the status quo

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