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Structuarlism is the historical school of psychology that asserted the purpose of psychology is to ___________

discover the smaller elements that compromise conciousness

What theorist would tend to emphasize explanations in terms of freedom and potentional for personal growth?

Carl Rogers

Recent research trends in psychology involve two largely ignored by early behaviorists. They are _________________

cognition(thinking) & evolutionary process

The assertion that "psychology is emperical" means that psychology is based on _________


Introspection was MOST likely to be used by what type of psychologist?


That psychology should study only what can be objectively observed is the focus of which of the following "schools" of psychology ?


What would be LEAST likely to be studied by a cognitive psychologist?

shaping behavior by reinforcement

Nature is to nurture as heredity is to ______


What is a major assumption of science?

events occur in a relatively orderly or particular manner

An experimenter tests the hypothesis that physical science exercise helps peoples moods (makes them happier). Subjects in the group participate on Mon & Tues and those in the control group on Weds & Thurs. What is the independent variable?

the exercise

An experimenter tests the hypothesis that physical science exercise helps peoples moods (makes them happier). Subjects in the group participate on Mon & Tues and those in the control group on Weds & Thurs. What is the dependent variable?

the mood (degree of happiness)

The major advantage of the experimental method over the correlational approach is that the experimental method ___________

permits one to make casual conclusions

Researchers find an inverse relationship between alcohol consumption and speed of response. what fictitious statistic could possibly represent that correlation?


What procedure helps correct for experimenter bias?

use of double blind procedure

A researcher wants to see if a protein enriched diet will enhance the maze-running performance of the rats. One group of rats is fed the high-protein diet for the duration of the study, the other group continuous to receive ordinary rat chow. In the experiment, the rats performance is the __________

dependent variable

As interest rates increase, house sales decline, indicating ________

a negative correlation between two variables

Placebos are used in research to control for _____

the subjects expectations about treatment

Most neurons are involved in transmitting information from _________

one neuron to another

What part of the neuron has the responsibility for receiving information from other neurons?

the dendrites

The change in popularity of a neuron that results from the inflow of sodium ions and the outlaw of potassium ions is called the __________

action potential

The task of passing a message from one neuron to another is actually carried out by ___________


Persons having difficulty with language and speech following an accident that resulted in injury to to the brain are most likely to have sustained damage to the ___________

left cerebral hemisphere

The electrical charge inside aneuron when it's in its resting state is approximately

- 70 millivolts

An impulse moves from one neuron to another through action of ____________


Damage to the cerebellum is more likely to result in _____________

problems with coordination of movement

What are the central themes of psychology?

1experience is subjective
2psychology is a science
3involves multiple competing theories
4no one theory explains it all
5levels of analysis interact in ways that constantly effect functioning
6an evolutionary science & involves socio-historic context

a science of the mind and behavior


how does psychology relate to the level of the brain? (levels of analysis)

brain is the hard wire and the mental processes are the programs that run it

What is the single most important even in psychology?

World War II

Who focused on identifying the "building blocks of consciousness" also the founder of scientific psychology

Wilhelm Wundt

What is a concept of Wilhelm Wundt's structuralism?

it was focused on that the mind could be broken down

What is a concept of Wilhem Wundt's introspection?

looking within- technique of observing mental events as they occur.. not objectively verifiable.. limited access (excludes unconscious mind)

Who made psychology famous?

William James

Define WIlliam James' concept of functionalism?

seeks to understand how peoples minds adapt to the world around them

Define and describe Gestalt psychology

focused on the idea that the whole is greater that the sum of its parts. focused on a consciousness and principles of perceptual organization

Who invented the idea of what mental illness is, also one the first psychologists?

Sigmund Freud

Define Psycho dynamic theory?

where mental illnesses came from. one of the most difficult theories of psychology. the mind has separate behaviors: conscious and unconscious

What is the UNCONSCIOUS? (in the Psychodynamic theory)

outside conscious awareness and not able to be brought into consciousness at will.

What is the theory of behaviorism entail?

Based on the idea that you can not study the unconsciousness

Who invented the theory of behaviorism?

John Watson

Who made the theory of behaviorism important?

B.F. Skinner

What did Watson propose as the basic goals of scientific theory?

1. the mind cannot be observed
2. behavior can be observed
3. science should study the observable

Who began animal research?


What is S-R psychology?

behaviorism, the same theory applies (the idea that you can not study unconsciousness)

What is reinforcement?

any consequence of a given behavior (think B.F. Skinner)

What is Humanistic psychology?

emerged in 1950s based on belief that people have positive values, free will, and deep inner creativity. inspired by the positive psychology movement (human behavior is completely out of human control)

Who created the idea of Humanistic psychology?

Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow

What is cognitive psychology?

the approach in psychology that attempts to characterize the mental events that allow information to be stored and operated on internally

What is cognitive neuroscience?

the approach in pyschology thatt blends cognitive psychology and neuroscience (the study of the brain) when attempting to specify how the brain gives rise to mental processes that store and process information

What is evolutionary psychology?

evolutionarily successful cognitive strategies and goals survived, these strategies remain today because they serve an adapt function

What is cultural universality?

insistences of the same practice mental processes occurring in all cultures around the world

language, belief, values, norms, and behaviors shared among members of a group and passed from one generation to the next


the study of how cultures reflect and shape the psychology processes of the minds of their members

cultural psychology

What is absolutism?

culture makes little to no difference for psychological phenomenom

What is relativism?

the idea that psychological phenomenon very considerably from one culture to the next

What is a clinical psychologist?

treats mental illness

What is a counseling psychologist?

day to day living and adjustment problems. (divorce, marital problems)

What is a psychiatrist?

physician who specializes in the diagnosis of mental disorders

What does an academic psychologist do?

teaches class and does research

What does an applied psychologist do?

Solves problems in practical areas

Positive correlation


Negative correlation


What is pseudopsychology?

a superstition or unsupported opinion pretending to be science (ex. palm reading, astrology)

What is the function of a neuron?

cells that receive signals from other neurons or sense organs

What is the function of a dendrite?

the receiving end... receives messages from the axon of other neurons

What is the function of a cell body?

the central part of the neuron. the cell body processes all signals received by the neuron

What is the function of an axon?

the sending end of a neuron.. takes info to its destination

What are terminal buttons and where on the neutron are the located?

at the end of the terminal, release chemicals into the space between neurons when the neuron has been triggered.

what are sensory neurons?

respond to input from sense organs transmits to brain and spinal cord

what are motor neurons?

sends signals to muscles to control movement

what are brain circuits?

sets of neurons that effect one another when one neuron in a circuit is triggered.

resting potential

at rest neurons maintain a negative charge

action potential

the shifting change in charge that mvoes down the axon

the all or none law:

it either fires or it doesn't (chemicals)


a fatty substance that helps impulses travel down the axon more efficiently


when an axon of one neuron sends a signal to the dendrite of another neuron

synaptic cleft-

the gap between 2 neurons


chemicals that carry signals from the terminal buttons of the sending neuron across the synaptic cleft to the dendrite of the receiving neuron


sacs holding neurotransmitters


specialized sites on the dendrites or cell bodies that respond to specific neurotransmitters

lock-and-key- system-

only certain neurotransmitters can activate certain receptors


making the receiving neuron more likely to fire an action potential


making the receiving neuron less easily triggered


the excess neurotransmitter back into the vesicles of the sending neuron


a neurotransmitter involved in a number of functions, including motor control and memory. Malfunctions liked alzheimer's disease


a neurotransmitter that regulates motor behavior, motivation, and reward. Malfunctions linked to schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease


a neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, inhibition, and mood. Malfunctions linked to depression

GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)-

the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Malfunctions liked to anxiety disorders

Endogenous cannnabinoids-

released by the RECIEVING neuron that influence the activity of SENDING neuron

agonist v. antagonists

mimic the effects of a neurotransmitter by activating by activating a particular type of receptor (LCD, COCAINE, METH)


block a particular receptor.

selective serotonin- reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)-

block the re-uptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin

glial cells-

help in the care and feeding of neurons

Central Nervous System

The spinal cord and brain together

Peripheral Nervous System

Links the brains to the organs and muscles to the bodies

Autonomic Nervous System

Controls the smooth muscles in the body and some glandular functions

Sensory Somatic Nervous System (SSNS)

Neurons in our sensory organs that convey information to the brain

Sympathetic Nervous System

Readies an animal for an emergency.

Parasympathetic Nervous System

Counteracts sympathetic effects by decreasing heart rate, contracting pupils, increasing salivation massively

Spinal Cord

The flexible rope of nerves that runs inside the backbone


Automatic responses to an event

Cerebral Cortex

Pinkish gray surface on the brain

Cerebral Hemisphere

Each half of the brain is shaped like a sphere

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