28 terms

Unit 8 Review

STUDY
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Spanish American War
War fought between the US and Spain in 1898 in Cuba and the Philippines. The US went into the war to help Cuba fight for independence. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines. It can also be called the "Splendid Little War". The US received recognition from Europe and Spain began to fight in the side of the US.
Panama Canal
(TR) , The United States built the Panama Canal to have a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa. It cost $400,000,000 to build. Columbians would not let Americans build the canal, but then with the assistance of the United States a Panamanian Revolution occurred. The new ruling people allowed the United States to build the canal., Hay-Herran Treaty: Secretary of State John Hay pressured Colombian diplomat Tomas Herran to sign an agreement allowing U.S. to build a canal through Panama from which Columbia would receive big $ but was rejected by Colombian Senate. TR supported a rebellion in Panama (organized & financed by Philippe Bunau-Varilla) and recognized Panama as an independent nation.
Cheif Joseph
the leader of the Nez Perce tribe that killed white settlers on the way to reservations because they were mad that the government was taking their land, "I will fight no more forever".
Battle of Wounded Knee
The Wounded Knee Massacre, also known as The Battle at Wounded Knee Creek, was the last major armed conflict between the Lakota Sioux and the United States, subsequently described as a "massacre" by General Nelson A. Miles in a letter to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
Yellow Journalism
One of the causes of the Spanish-American War (1898) - this was when newspaper publishers like Hearst and Pulitzer sensationalized news events (like the sinking of the Maine) to anger American public towards Spain.
The Grange
an association formed by farmers in the last 1800s to make life better for farmers by sharing information about crops, prices, and supplies
Roosevelt Corollary
(TR) , Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force, first put into effect in Dominican Republic.
Plains Indians
Included people from many Indian nations including Cheyenne, Arapahos, Piutes, and Sioux. Came into great conflict with settlers because settlers did not respect the Indian land.
Plains Buffalo
The Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho, and other groups relied on buffalo or food, shelter, clothing, tools, and countless other necessities of everyday life. Were put at risk when White Settlers killed them off for railroads, leather, etc.
Dawes Severalty Act
1887, dismantled American Indian tribes, set up individuals as family heads with 160 acres, tried to make rugged individualists out of the Indians, attempt to assimilate the Indian population into that of the American.
Civil War financed by
mineral wealth.
Homestead Act
Law passed in 1862 that gave 160 acres of western land to those willing to settle in the west - along with the building of the transcontinental railroad a key factor in developing the frontier. One problem with the Homestead Act was that it was inadequate for farming in the rain-scarce Great Plains.
Election of 1896
Republican William McKinley defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan in 1896. Bryan was the nominee of the Democrats, the Populist Party, and the Silver Republicans.Economic issues, including bimetallism, the gold standard, Free Silver, and the tariff, were crucial.
Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan
a naval captain who was a leading advocate of sea power and Western Imperialism during the 1880's. In 1890 he published The Influence of Sea Power upon History which said that national greatness and prosperity came from maritime prosperity. He believed that the modern economic development called for a powerful navy and that it was America's "destiny" to control eh Caribbean and build a canal connecting the Pacific and the Caribbean. His ideas were widely popular and widely circulated
Annexation of Hawaii
U.S. wanted Hawaii for business and so Hawaiian sugar could be sold in the U.S. duty free, Queen Liliuokalani opposed so Sanford B. Dole overthrew her in 1893, William McKinley convinced Congress to annex Hawaii in 1898.
Benevolent Assimilation
McKinley and the U.S. were trying to assimilate the Philippines to help them become better. American dollars went to the Philippines to improve roads, sanitation, and public health. Although the U.S. might have looked intrusive, they were actually trying to improve the condition of the Philippines.
Election of 1900
Republicans renominated President McKinley with Theodore Roosevelt as vice president. Democrats nominated William Jennings Bryan, who argued for free silver (1896). Americans accepted the recently enacted gold standard, while Bryan attacked the growth of American imperialism. Philippines was an accomplished fact. The growing national economic prosperity gave McKinley a victory.
Teller Amendment
April 1896 - U.S. declared Cuba free from Spain, but the Teller Amendment disclaimed any American intention to annex Cuba.
Platt Amendment
This amendment to the new Cuban constitution authorized U.S. intervention in Cuba to protect its interests. Cuba pledged not to make treates with other countries that might compromise its independence, and it granted naval bases to the United States, most notable being Guantanamo Bay.
Census 1890
Superintendent announced that the frontier of the U.S was no longer discernable in 1840- all unsettled grants were now broken into by settlement
McKinley's Assassination
McKinley was attacked by Hearst's paper and when he was inaugurated the paper tore him apart saying that he might as well be dead. He was actually shot to death and Hearst's paper was blamed for the conspiracy. His paper was banned and all others who talked badly about Mckinley. His assassination was the decline of yellow journalism.
Imperialism
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
Isolationism
abstention from alliances and other international political and economic relations.
Collective Security
a system in which a group of nations acts as one to preserve the peace of all. (United Nations)
Internationalism
a national policy of actively trading with foreign countries to foster peace and prosperity.
Imperialism
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
Safety Valve
Theory that when hard times came, the unemployed could migrate west and be prosperous farmers.
Induced urban employers to maintain high wage rates. (Denver, Chicago, St.Louis)
Farmer's Difficulties in late 19th Century
Natural Disasters when farming. They were heavily taxed because they couldn't hide their assets. Farmer's wanted silver for debt to create inflation.