50 terms

All APEL First Quarter Terms

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polysyndeton
Deliberate use of many conjunctions in close succession. Ex1. "he ran and jumped and laughed for joy" Ex2. "Let them have their money and power and sarcasm and big houses and schools"
dramatic irony
an audience's awareness of a situation that the character(s) is not aware of. Ex1. when character is walking down street but audience knows character is being followed. Ex2. when Oedipus thinks killed the king, but readers know it was actually his dad.
situational irony
when outcome of situation is contradictory to what was expected. Ex1. If a vegan eats pepperoni pizza because they are hungry. Ex2. If a cat chases a dog.
Syntax
the arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences.
Ex 1: He went to school.
Ex 2: He likes school.
Pathos
a quality that evokes pity or sadness.
Ex 1: My deformed leg makes me sad to see everyone's healthy legs, every day. The sadness overwhelms me.
Ex 2: I can't see color. My life is black and white. Save me from this emotionless hell.
Tone
the general character or attitude of a place, piece of writing, situation, etc.
Ex 1: Miley, Wass gooood?
Ex 2: I think Nickelback is an amazingly awesome, fantastically cool band!!!!!!
allusion
a figure of speech that refers to a well-known story, event, person, or object in order to make a comparison in the readers' minds
Ex: "....when Mildred ran from the parlor like a native fleeing an eruption of Vesuvius" -reference in Fahrenheit 451 to a volcano
Ex: "Montag stopped eating. ..., he saw their Cheshire cat smiles burning through the walls of the house...."
-reference in Fahrenheit 451 to Alice in Wonderland
analogy
a literary device that creates a relationship based on parallels or connections between two ideas
Ex: "In his blue garden men and girls came and went like moths among the whisperings and the champagne and the stars." -Great Gatsby Simile
Ex: "Daisy and Jordan lay upon an enormous couch, like silver idols, weighing down their own white dresses against the singing breeze of the fans"
antithesis
a contrast or opposition between two things
Ex: "fair is foul and foul is fair" - Macbeth
Ex: "Look like the innocent flower.
But be the serpent under 't" - Macbeth
Annotation
A concise statement that summarizes a text or portion of a text.
Ex 1: Writing notes in the margins of a reading assignment.
Ex 2: A note about how to pronounce a certain word.
Context
The words and sentences around word or phrase that help explain what it means.
Ex 1: It was an idyllic day; sunny, warm and perfect for a walk in the park. The information after the semi colon explains what idyllic means.
Ex 2: Reporters often take quotes out of context to make headlines, because without the context, the quotes can be perceived completely differently.
Cumulative sentence
An independent clause followed by subordinate phrases or clauses that give more information about the original independent clause.
Ex 1: The fire alarm went off, making a loud clanging noise, startling everyone, and causing some people to knock over their chairs.
Ex 2: I like all kinds of music, rhythm and blues, rock, and hip hop.
hyperbole
A figure of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overstatement.

Example 1: He runs faster than the speed of light.
Example 2: His house is larger than Jupiter.
personification
A figure of speech in which an object or animal is given human feelings, thoughts, or attitudes

Example 1: The thunder growled like a curmudgeon.
Example 2: The moon danced under the stars.
understatement
the presentation of something as being smaller, worse, or less important than it actually is.

Example 1: (from Catcher in the Rye): "I have to have this operation. It isn't very serious. I have this tiny little tumor on the brain."
Example 2: Bill Gates is financially secure
Alliteration
A stylistic device in which a number of words, having the same first consonant sound, occur close together in a series. Ex 1: But a better butter makes a batter better. Ex 2: A big bully beats a baby boy.
Simile
A figure of speech that makes a comparison, showing similarities between two different things. Unlike a metaphor, it draws resemblance with the help of the words "like" or "as" and is therefore a direct comparison. Ex 1: The water well was as dry as a bone. Ex 2: He is as cunning as a fox.
Ethos
Credibility or an ethical appeal which involves persuasion by the character involved. Ex 1: "As a doctor, I am qualified to tell you that this course of treatment will likely generate the best results." Ex 2: "My three decades of experience in public service, my tireless commitment to the people of this community, and my willingness to reach across the aisle and cooperate with the opposition, make me the ideal candidate for your mayor."
denotation
The meaning of a word or phrase.

Example 1: A school is an institution where instruction is given, especially to persons under college age.

Example 2: Rhetoric is the study of the effective use of language.
nominalization
The use/conversion of a word which is not a noun (like a verb or adjective) as a noun.

Example 1: "permanence" (noun) from "permanent" (adjective)

Example 2: "increase" as a verb ("the profits will increase") and "increase" as a noun ("something caused a large increase in profit").
antimetabole
The repetition of words, but in transposed order.

Example 1: "Fair is foul, and foul is fair" (from Macbeth)

Example 2: "Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country." (John F. Kennedy)
anecdote
Definition: A short account (or narrative) of an interesting or amusing incident, often intended to illustrate or support some point in an essay, article, or chapter of a book.

EX1) "The writer makes his living by anecdotes. He searches them out and carves them as the raw materials of his profession. No hunter stalking his prey is more alert to the presence of his quarry than a writer looking for small incidents that cast a strong light on human behavior."
(Norman Cousins, The Healing Heart: Antidotes to Panic and Helplessness. Avon, 1984)

EX2) "There was something elusively whimsical about Einstein. It is illustrated by my favorite anecdote about him. In his first year in Princeton, on Christmas Eve, so the story goes, some children sang carols outside his house. Having finished, they knocked on his door and explained they were collecting money to buy Christmas presents. Einstein listened, then said, "Wait a moment." He put on his scarf and overcoat, and took his violin from its case. Then, joining the children as they went from door to door,he accompanied their singing of 'Silent Night' on his violin."
(Banesh Hoffman, "My Friend, Albert Einstein." Reader's Digest, January 1968)
persona
Definition: A voice or mask that an author, speaker, or performer puts on for a particular purpose.

EX1) "According to those who knew him well, Hemingway was a sensitive, often shy man whose enthusiasm for life was balanced by his ability to listen intently . . .. That was not the Hemingway of the news stories. The media wanted and encouraged a brawnier Hemingway, a two-fisted man whose life was fraught with dangers. The author, a newspaper man by training, was complicit in this creation of a public persona, a Hemingway that was not without factual basis, but also not the whole man. Critics, especially, but the public as well, Hemingway hinted in his 1933 letter to [Maxwell] Perkins, were eager 'automatically' to 'label' Hemingway's characters as himself, which helped establish the Hemingway persona, a media-created Hemingway that would shadow--and overshadow--the man and writer."
(Michael Reynolds, "Hemingway in Our Times." The New York Times, July 11, 1999)

EX2) "It is to my other self, to Borges, that things happen. I walk about Buenos Aires and I pause, almost mechanically, to contemplate the arch of an entry or the portal of a church; news of Borges comes to me in the mail, and I see his name on a short list of professors or in a biographical dictionary. I am fond of hour glasses, maps, 18th-century typography, the etymology of words, the tang of coffee, and the prose of Stevenson; the other one shares these enthusiasms, but in a rather vain, theatrical way... I cannot tell which one of us is writing this page." (Jorge Luis Borges on his public persona)
synecdoche
Definition: A literary device in which a part of something represents the whole or it may use a whole to represent a part.

EX1) "Suits" used to refer to businessmen

EX2) San Fransisco won by a touchdown. ("San Francisco" really refers to San Francisco's football team, which won by a touchdown.)
Anaphora
The repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses

Example 1: "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair."
- A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens

Example 2: In 2 short months, winter break will be here. In 2 short months, I'll have no homework. In 2 short months, I'll be able to spend a week without setting foot out of the house.
Imperative sentence
Gives advice or instructions or expresses a request or command

Example 1: Fetch me a donut!

Example 2: Bow down to me!
Asyndeton
The omission or absence of a conjunction between parts of a sentence

Example 1: "This is the villain among you who deceived you, who cheated you, who meant to betray you completely......."
- Rhetoric by Aristotle

Example 2: I searched my backpack, checked my desk, looked under my bed, went through the trash, scoured the house, traversed the Gobi desert...
Imagery
The use of figurative language to represent objects, actions, and ideas that appeal to our physical senses
Ex 1: The children were screaming and shouting in the fields.
Ex 2: The girl ran her hands on a soft satin fabric.
Verbal Irony
The use of vocabulary to describe something in a way that is other than it seems (sarcasm)
Ex 1: This chair is as comfortable as sitting on nails.
Ex 2: I like spending time with my co-workers as much as I enjoy digging my eye out with a dull spoon.
Logos
An appeal to logic, and is a way of persuading an audience by reason
Ex 1: "Private demand for the product has tapered off for the past three years, and this year's sales figures are at an all-time low. It's time to research other options."
Ex 2: "The algorithms have been run in a thousand different ways, and the math continues to check out."
metaphor
a word or phrase being used in a sentence which doesn't literally make sense
ex: I fell into a hole of depression.
ex: The classroom was an oven.
metonymy
a word or phrase that is used to replace a larger object that is closely related
ex: Mercantilism only favored the British crown.
ex: California passed the law two years ago.
rhetorical question
a question meant to be left unanswered in order to prove a point
ex: You didn't think I would say no, did you?
ex: How many times do I have to tell you to do your homework?
zeugma
a figure of speech in which a word applies to two others in different senses or to two others of which it semantically suits only one, blending together grammatically and logically different ideas

1."John and his license expired last week"

2. "with weeping eyes and hearts"

3. "Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears."
juxtapose
to place (different things) together in order to create an interesting effect or to show how they are the same or different

1." O, she doth teach the torches to burn bright! / It seems she hangs upon the cheek of night; Like a rich jewel in an Ethiope's ear" light and dark

2. "A butler spends his days in a beautiful mansion dressed in a tuxedo, but returns home to a closet-sized apartment in a rundown part of town." juxtaposing two settings
archaic diction
the use of writing or speech which is now rarely used, the use of older versions of language and art

1. stoppeth

2. thy

3. cautel doth
Compound Sentence
A sentence that has two independent clauses and are connected by a conjunction or semicolon.
ex) I enjoy eating apples, and I enjoy playing baseball
ex) He ran out of money, so he could not buy the apples
Connotation
An implied meaning that is associated with a word in addition to its literal meaning.
ex) Nolan is such a chicken
ex) That card trick was sick
Trope
A word or expression used in a figurative way (figure of speech)
ex) I read this book 5000 times
ex) I'll die from embarasment
Periodic Sentence
A sentence where the main clause is at the end.
Examples:
1. Around the tree, down the rabbit hole, past the mushrooms, I followed the little white rabbit.
2. With a bright and huge smile that lightened up the whole room, the man took the stage.
Complex Sentence
A sentence that contains one independent clause and at least one dependent clause.
Examples:
1. As I was walking home from school, I saw five Teslas on the road.
2. The museum was very interesting, as I expected.
Compound/Complex Sentence
made from two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.

Example:
-Although I like to go camping, I haven't had the time to go lately, and I haven't found anyone to go with.-

independent clause: "I haven't had the time to go lately"
independent clause: "I haven't found anyone to go with"
dependent clause: "Although I like to go camping... "

Example 2:
-We decided that the movie was too violent, but our children, who like to watch scary movies, thought that we were wrong.-

independent clause: "We decided that the movie was too violent"
independent clause: "(but) our children thought that we were wrong"
dependent clause: who like to watch scary movies
Diction
The choice of words or phrases in writing, or the style of writing or speaking that a writer, speaker, or character uses. The speaking or writing should match purpose or audience.

An example of formal vs informal:
"Could you be so kind as to pass me the milk?" Vs. "Give me that!"

Another example of formal :
"It seemed to me that a careful examination of the room and the lawn might possibly reveal some traces of this mysterious individual. You know my methods, Watson. There was not one of them which I did not apply to the inquiry. And it ended by my discovering traces, but very different ones from those which I had expected."
(The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle)

shows that Sherlock Holmes is always very formal, no matter the situation.

Informal diction:
"You just hold your head high and keep those fists down. No matter what anybody says to you, don't you let 'em get your goat. Try fighting with your head for a change."
(To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee)

This informal --> shows his close relationship to his daughter and makes him seem more approachable.
Occasion
larger: environment of ideas, attitudes, and emotions that swirl around a broad issue.
immediate occasion: an event or situation that catches the writer's attention and triggers a response.

can be any event, idea, or anything else that gives a writer a reason to write. The statement is usually in the form of a complex sentence and is introduced by one of these words:

If, After, Since, Before, So that, Whenever, As long as, In order that, Even though, Although, Unless, While, When, Even, As if, As, Until, Where, Though, Even if, Because.

Examples:

If you think that it is fine to talk and chew at the same time, then consider what happened to these people.

Even though wearing a helmet and other protective equipment seem like a hassle, they are meant to protect you in case of an accident.
Aristolean Triangle
The three rhetorical appeals (Logos, Ethos, Pathos) used to help build credibility present a logical argument and show the reader why they should care.
A balance must be struck between the three.
Scheme
Figures of speech that deal with word order, syntax, letters and sounds as opposed to the meaning of the words.

Examples:
Parallelism
Alliteration
Anaphora
Rhetorical Appeals
Logos Ethos and Pathos (the three elements of the art of persuasion)
Soapstone
(S)peaker, (O)ccasion, (A)udience, (P)urpose, (S)ubject, (T)one. A strategy that can be used to help plan your writing.
Adage
A traditional saying expressing a common experience or observation; proverb.

Examples:
Early to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise.
An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.
mood
a literary element that evokes certain feelings or vibes in readers through words and descriptions.

Usually, referred to as the atmosphere of a literary piece, as it creates an emotional situation that surrounds the readers. developed in a literary piece through various methods. It can be developed through setting, theme, tone and diction.

1. "The river, reflecting the clear blue of the sky, glistened and sparkled as it flowed noiselessly on."
The depiction of idyllic scenery imparts a serene and non-violent "" to the readers.

2. "And being no stranger to the art of war, I have him a description of cannons, culverins, muskets, carabines, pistols, bullets, powder, swords, bayonets, battles, sieges, retreats, attacks, undermines, countermines, bombardments, sea-fights..."

In order to create feelings of disgust in readers for the destructive consequences of war, the writer chooses words that are unmelodious, harsh and jarring. The diction in the above passage corresponds with the subject matter.