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(of a chemical reaction or compound) occurring or formed with absorption of heat


(of a chemical reaction or compound) occurring or formed with evolution of heat


a unit of power equal to 1 joule per second

Potential Energy

energy stored due to an object's position or arrangement

Kinetic Energy

the energy an object has due to its motion


unit of heat defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree centigrade at atmospheric pressure

Kilowatt Hour

a unit of energy equal to the work done by a power of 1000 watts operating for one hour

Crude Oil

a dark oil consisting mainly of hydrocarbons

Tar Sands

Geologic deposits composed of sand and shale particles coated with bitumen, a viscous mixture of long-chain hydrocarbons.

Fractional Distillation

A process of petroleum refining, by which a chemical mixture such as petroleum is separated into its components depending on the different boiling points of components.

Energy Efficiency

The percentage of energy put into a system that does useful work


Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

1st Law of Thermodynamics

The principle of conservation of energy. Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.

2nd Law of Thermodynamics

whenever energy is converted from one form to another form some energy is lost as heat


british thermal unit

Fossil Fuel

fuel consisting of the remains of organisms preserved in rocks in the earth's crust with high carbon and hydrogen content

Oil Shale

a soft, fine-grained sedimentary rock from which oil and natural gas are obtained

Natural Gas

fossil fuel formed from marine organisms that is often found in tilted or folded rock layers and is used for heating and cooking


the process of removing impurities (as from oil or metals or sugar etc.)

Heat Exchanger

A material or system that exchanges heat from one system or material to another.

Peaker Plant

An electricity generator that is activated when the price of electricity from the grid reaches a certain level in order to save money


a unit of electrical energy equal to the work done when a current of one ampere passes through a resistance of one ohm for one second


a thermodynamic quantity representing the amount of energy in a system that is no longer available for doing mechanical work


a unit of power equal to 1000 watts

Industrial Revolution

the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation


fossil fuel consisting of carbonized vegetable matter deposited in the Carboniferous period

Methane Hydrate

Small bubbles or individual molecules of methane (natural gas) trapped in a crystalline matrix of frozen water.


using waste heat to make electricity


Arctic National Wildlife Refuge - the largest refuge in the U.S. covering nearly 20 million acres in northeastern Alaska.

Power Plant

an electrical generating station

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