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30 terms

Unit 10 - Traditional Energy Use & Impacts

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Endothermic
(of a chemical reaction or compound) occurring or formed with absorption of heat
Exothermic
(of a chemical reaction or compound) occurring or formed with evolution of heat
Watt
a unit of power equal to 1 joule per second
Potential Energy
energy stored due to an object's position or arrangement
Kinetic Energy
the energy an object has due to its motion
Calorie
unit of heat defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree centigrade at atmospheric pressure
Kilowatt Hour
a unit of energy equal to the work done by a power of 1000 watts operating for one hour
Crude Oil
a dark oil consisting mainly of hydrocarbons
Tar Sands
Geologic deposits composed of sand and shale particles coated with bitumen, a viscous mixture of long-chain hydrocarbons.
Fractional Distillation
A process of petroleum refining, by which a chemical mixture such as petroleum is separated into its components depending on the different boiling points of components.
Energy Efficiency
The percentage of energy put into a system that does useful work
OPEC
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
1st Law of Thermodynamics
The principle of conservation of energy. Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
whenever energy is converted from one form to another form some energy is lost as heat
BTU
british thermal unit
Fossil Fuel
fuel consisting of the remains of organisms preserved in rocks in the earth's crust with high carbon and hydrogen content
Oil Shale
a soft, fine-grained sedimentary rock from which oil and natural gas are obtained
Natural Gas
fossil fuel formed from marine organisms that is often found in tilted or folded rock layers and is used for heating and cooking
Refinement
the process of removing impurities (as from oil or metals or sugar etc.)
Heat Exchanger
A material or system that exchanges heat from one system or material to another.
Peaker Plant
An electricity generator that is activated when the price of electricity from the grid reaches a certain level in order to save money
Joule
a unit of electrical energy equal to the work done when a current of one ampere passes through a resistance of one ohm for one second
Entropy
a thermodynamic quantity representing the amount of energy in a system that is no longer available for doing mechanical work
Kilowatt
a unit of power equal to 1000 watts
Industrial Revolution
the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation
Coal
fossil fuel consisting of carbonized vegetable matter deposited in the Carboniferous period
Methane Hydrate
Small bubbles or individual molecules of methane (natural gas) trapped in a crystalline matrix of frozen water.
Cogeneration
using waste heat to make electricity
ANWR
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge - the largest refuge in the U.S. covering nearly 20 million acres in northeastern Alaska.
Power Plant
an electrical generating station