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Terms in this set (38)
A state-of-the-art concept, pioneered by director Francis Ford Coppola and film editor Walter Murch, combining the crafts of editing and mixing and, like them, involving both theoretical and practical issues. In essence, sound design represents advocacy for movie sound (to counter some people's tendency to favor the movie image).
A sound designer treats the sound track of a film the way a painter treats a canvas. That is, for each shot, after all the necessary sounds are identified in terms of the story and plot, the designer starts by laying in all the background tones (different tones equal different colors) to create the support necessary for adding the specific sounds that help the scene to function.
Production sound team
The recording of production sound is the responsibility of the production sound mixer and a team of assistants, which includes, on the set, a sound recordist, a sound mixer, a microphone boom
Operator and gaffers (in charge of the power supply, electrical connections, and cables
This team must place ;00000000000and/or move the microphones so that the sound corresponds to the space between actors and camera and the dialogue will be as free from background noise as possible.
A separate recording tape occupied by one specific type of sound recorded for a movie (one track for vocals, one for sound effects, one for music, etc.
The standard technique of recording film sound on a medium separate from the picture; this technique allows both for maximum quality control of the medium and for the many aspects of manipulating sound during postproduction editing, mixing, and synchronization.
Post production sound team
supervising sound editor, sound editors (who usually concentrate on their specialties: dialogue, music, or sound effects), sound mixers, rerecording mixers, sound-effects personnel, and Foley artists. The editor also works closely with the musical composer or those responsible for the selection of music from other sources.
Also known as rushes. Usually, synchronized picture/sound work prints of a day's shooting that can be studied by the director, editor, and other crewmembers before the next day's shooting begins.
Material that isn't used in either the rough cut or the final cut, but is cataloged and saved.
Also known as looping or dubbing. The replacing of dialogue, which can be done manually (that is, with the actors watching the footage, synchronizing their lips with it, and rereading the lines) or, more likely today, through computerized automatic dialogue replacement (ADR). (Dubbing also refers to the process of replacing dialogue in a foreign language with English, or the reverse, throughout a film.)
Automatic dialogue replacement (ADR)
Rerecording done via computer—a faster, less expensive, and more technically sophisticated process than rerecording that is done with actors.
The process of combining different sound tracks onto one composite sound track that is synchronous with the picture.
The faithfulness or unfaithfulness of a sound to its source.
what we perceive in sound
what constitutes the sound
(or level) Described as high or low.
(or volume or intensity) Described as loud or soft.
(or timbre, texture, or color) Described as simple or complex
or speed—that is, the number of sound waves produced per second
or degree of motion within the sound wave
or texture resulting from a single sound wave or a mix of sound waves
Sound that originates from a source within a film's world. All of the sounds that accompany everyday actions and speech depicted on-screen -- footsteps on pavement, a knock on a door, the ring of a telephone, the report from a fired gun, ordinary dialogue -- are diegetic.
Sound that originates from a source outside a film's world. It is recorded during postproduction, and it is assumed to be inaudible to the characters on-screen (e.g., musical scores and narration).
A form of diegetic sound that emanates from a source that we both see and hear. Onscreen sound may be internal sound or external sound.
A form of sound, either diegetic or nondiegetic, that derives from a source we do not see. When diegetic, it consists of sound effects, music, or vocals that emanate from the world of the story. When nondiegetic, it takes the form of a musical score or narration by someone who is not a character in the story.
Sound that is diegetic and occurs onscreen
Sound that has previously been established in the movie and replays for some narrative or expressive purpose. Nonsimultaneous sounds often occur when a character has a mental flashback to an earlier voice that recalls a conversation, or to a sound that identifies a place, event, or other significant element of the narrative.
Sound that comes from a source apparent in the image but that is not precisely matched temporally with the actions occurring in that image. We are aware of it when we sense a discrepancy between the things heard and the things seen on the screen. It is either a sound that is closely related to the action but not precisely synchronized with it or a sound that either anticipates or follows the action to which it belongs. Because we cannot see its source, asynchronous sound seems mysterious and raises our curiosity and expectations. Thus it offers creative opportunities for building tension and surprise in a scene.
A form of diegetic sound in which we hear the thoughts of a character we see onscreen and assume that other characters cannot hear them
One variation on the mental, subjective point of view of an individual character that allows us to see a character and hear that character's thoughts (in his or her own voice, even though the character's lips don't move).
A form of diegetic sound that comes from a place within the world of the story, which we and the characters in the scene hear but do not see.
The lip-synchronous speech of characters that are either visible onscreen or speaking off-screen, say from another part of the room that is not visible or from an adjacent room.
The act of telling the story of the film. The primary source of a movie's narration is the camera, which narrates the story by showing us the events of the narrative on-screen. When the word "narration" is used to refer more narrowly to spoken narration, the reference is to commentary spoken by either an off-screen or on-screen voice. When that commentary is not spoken by one of the characters in the movie, it is omniscient. When spoken by a character within the movie, the commentary is first-person narration.
Sound that emanates from the ambience (background) of the setting or environment being filmed, either recorded during production or added during postproduction. Although it may incorporate other types of film sound—dialogue, narration, sound effects, Foley sounds, and music—ambient sound does not include any unintentionally recorded noise made during production.
A sound artificially created for the sound track that has a definite function in telling the story. All sound effects, except those made on electronic equipment to deliberately create electronic sounds, come from "wild" recordings of real things.
a special category of sound effects invented in the 1930s by Jack Foley, a sound technician at Universal Studios. Foleys are created and recorded in sync with the picture. To do this, the technicians known as Foley artists have a studio equipped with recording equipment and a screen on which to view the movie as they create sounds in sync with it. Foley artists use a variety of props and other equipment to simulate everyday sounds - such as footsteps in the mud, jingling car keys, the rustling of clothing, or cutlery hitting a plate - that must exactly match the movement on the screen.
Also known as a sound bridge. Sound that carries over from one shot to the next before the sound of the second shot begins.
Sound production consists of four phases
design, recording, editing, and mixing
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