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Improved Portugeuse ship


Improved navigation


"Compass of the stars" improved navigation

Prince Henry the Navigator

Brother of the king of Portugal, organized expeditions for trade to the south

Vasco da Gama

Portuguese navigator, opened trade to India

Bartolomeu Diaz

Portuguese navigator, first person to reach South Africa

Amerigo Vespucci

Italian/Portuguese navigator, reached Brazil, America named after him


Land of gold, lots of Arab trade, began salt and slave trade with Arabia, taken over by Mali


Took over Ghana, Islamic kingdom, incredibly rich, taken over by Songhai Empire


Largest African empire, took over Mali

Mansa Musa

Emperor of Mali, made first African Hajj


Traded with Portuguese and Dutch

Alfonso I

Emperor of Congo

triangular trade

Trade between the Americas, Europe and Africa

Middle Passage

Slaves taken from Africa to the Americas


Central America, tropical climate, polytheistic, math


Peru, no outside contact, no currency or private property, lots of mining


Mexico, polytheistic, never peaceful


Attempted to conquer the Americas and spread Christianity

Hernán Cortés

Famous conquistador, conquered Aztec Empire


People of European blood born in the Americas


Chinese emperor during the Manchu Dynasty, opened outside relations

Manchu Dynasty

Very cultured, invented gunpowder, compass, accepted Jesuits, combined Christianity and Confucianism


Japanese social hierarchy; shoguns exercising powers on emperor's behalf (not like powerful feudal lords)

East India Companies

Created by France, India fought over between England and France, India never able to maintain control before being conquered again

Treaty of Tordesilla

Spain and Portugal fought over South America, Pope creates "line of demarcation"

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