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621 Chapter 1

STUDY
PLAY
1. TF #1
Until the 1980s, project management primarily focused on providing schedule and resource data to top management in the military, computer, and construction industries.
*a. True
b. False
2. TF #2
A research report showed that the U.S. spends $2.3 trillion on projects every year, an amount equal to 40 percent of the nation's gross domestic product.
a. True
*b. False
3. TF #3
One attribute that helps define a project is that a project has a unique purpose.
*a. True
b. False
4. TF #4
A project should be developed using progressive elaboration, starting from specific details and broadening in scope as it progresses.
a. True
*b. False
5. TF #5
Projects are often defined narrowly when they begin.
a. True
*b. False
6. TF #6
Projects rarely involve uncertainty.
a. True
*b. False
7. TF #7
Every project is constrained in different ways by its scope and cost goals; these limitations are sometimes referred to in project management as the double constraint.
a. True
*b. False
8. TF #8
Questions about how long a project's schedule should be are related to the issue of the project's scope.
a. True
*b. False
9. TF #9
Because projects involve uncertainty and limited resources, projects rarely finish according to discrete scope, time, and cost goals as originally planned.
*a. True
b. False
10. TF #10
Managing the triple constraint involves making trade-offs between scope, time, and cost goals for a project.
*a. True
b. False
11. TF #11
Some people refer to the "double constraint" of project management to include quality and customer satisfaction.
a. True
*b. False
12. TF #12
In the example of building a new house, the support staff would provide the wood, windows, flooring materials, appliances, and so on.
a. True
*b. False
13. TF #13
Stakeholders' needs and expectations are only important in the beginning of a project.
a. True
*b. False
14. TF #14
There are six core knowledge areas of project management.
a. True
*b. False
15. TF #15
Follow-up studies done by the Standish Group showed that the number of failed projects has more than doubled in the past decade.
a. True
*b. False
16. TF #16
The 2006 Standish Group survey showed that IT project success rates had risen from 16 percent in 1994 to 35 percent in 2006.
*a. True
b. False
17. TF #17
Project management is the silver bullet that guarantees success on all projects.
a. True
*b. False
18. TF #18
A key finding of a 2004 study is that relationship management is viewed as a top success factor for information systems in China, while it is not mentioned in U.S. studies.
*a. True
b. False
19. TF #19
Winners in project delivery know that strong program managers—referred to as project leaders—are crucial to project success.
*a. True
b. False
20. TF #20
A program is "a group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually."
*a. True
b. False
21. TF #21
Program managers are not responsible for coordinating the efforts of project teams, functional groups, suppliers, and operations staff.
a. True
*b. False
22. TF #22
The job description for a project manager can vary by industry and by organization.
*a. True
b. False
23. TF #23
Project managers should possess general management knowledge and skills.
*a. True
b. False
24. TF #24
Project managers must be able to make effective use of technology as it relates to the specific project.
*a. True
b. False
25. TF #25
Project managers for large information technology projects have to be experts in the field of information technology.
a. True
*b. False
26. TF #26
Project managers often take on the role of both leader and manager.
*a. True
b. False
27. TF #27
Today's project managers still draw Gantt charts by hand.
a. True
*b. False
28. TF #28
Determining the relationships among tasks is not essential in helping to improve project scheduling.
a. True
*b. False
29. TF #29
New software makes basic tools, such as Gantt charts and network diagrams, inexpensive, easy to create, and available for anyone to update.
*a. True
b. False
30. TF #30
Many people still use basic productivity software, such as Microsoft Word or Excel, to perform many project management functions.
*a. True
b. False
31. MC #1
A research report showed that the U.S. spends ____ on projects every year.
a. $2.3 billion
b. $23 billion
c. $2.3 trillion
d. $23 trillion
c. $2.3 trillion
32. MC #2
A research report showed that the U.S. spends the equivalent of ____ percent of the nation's gross domestic product on projects every year.
a. 10
b. 20
c. 25
d. 50
c. 25
33. MC #3
Many organizations assert that using project management provides advantages, such as ____.
a. lower profit margins
b. lower costs
c. less internal coordination
d. lower worker morale
b. lower costs
34. MC #4
Because a project requires resources, often from various areas, many projects cross ____ or other boundaries to achieve their unique purposes.
a. financial
b. spatial
c. departmental
d. technological
*c. departmental
35. MC #5
The project ____ usually provides the direction and funding for the project.
a. leader
b. sponsor
c. manager
d. director
b. sponsor
36. MC #6
The limitations of scope, time, and cost goals are sometimes referred to as the ____.
a. double bind
b. triple constraint
c. double constraint
d. double obstacle
b. triple constraint
37. MC #7
____ are the people involved in or affected by project activities and include the project sponsor, project team, support staff, customers, users, suppliers, and even opponents of the project.
a. Managers
b. Stakeholders
c. Directors
d. Citizens
b. Stakeholders
38. MC #8
In the example of the project of building a house, the project sponsors would be the potential ____.
a. contractors
b. support staff
c. managers
d. new homeowners
*d. new homeowners
39. MC #9
In the example of the project of building a house, the ____ would normally be the general contractor responsible for building the house.
a. project sponsors
b. project team
c. project manager
d. support staff
*c. project manager
40. MC #10
Project ____ management involves defining and managing all the work required to complete the project successfully.
a. scope
b. quality
c. time
d. cost
*a. scope
41. MC #11
Project ____ management ensures that the project will satisfy the stated or implied needs for which it was undertaken.
a. cost
b. time
c. scope
d. quality
*d. quality
42. MC #12
Project ____ management is concerned with making effective use of the people involved with the project.
a. human resource
b. risk
c. communications
d. procurement
*a. human resource
43. MC #13
Project ____ management involves generating, collecting, disseminating, and storing project information.
a. risk
b. procurement
c. communications
d. resource
*c. communications
44. MC #14
Project ____ management is an overarching function that affects and is affected by all of the other knowledge areas.
a. cost
b. quality
c. integration
d. time
*c. integration
45. MC #15
What works on one project may not work on another, so it is essential for project managers to continue to develop their knowledge and ____ in managing projects.
a. time
b. resources
c. funding
d. skills
*d. skills
46. MC #16
According to the Standish group, which of the following factors contributes most to the success of information technology projects?
a. Executive support
b. User involvement
c. Experienced project manager
d. Clear business objectives
*a. Executive support
47. MC #17
According to the Standish Group study describing what factors contribute most to the success of information technology projects, ____ percent of successful projects are led by experienced project managers.
a. 75
b. 80
c. 97
d. 100
*c. 97
48. MC #18
"All project leaders use a shared road map, focusing on key business aspects of their projects while integrating goals across all parts of the organization" describes the ____ best practice for project delivery.
a. Use an integrated toolbox
b. Grow project leaders
c. Develop a streamlined project delivery process
d. Measure project health using metrics
*c. Develop a streamlined project delivery process
49. MC #19
____ project management software integrates information from multiple projects to show the status of active, approved, and future projects across an entire organization.
a. Investment
b. Active
c. Enterprise
d. Budget
*c. Enterprise
50. MC #20
A ____ can have many different job descriptions, which can vary tremendously based on the organization and the project.
a. project supervisor
b. project manager
c. job coordinator
d. project coordinator
*b. project manager
51. MC #21
In an interview with two chief information officers (CIOs), both men agreed that the most important project management skills seem to depend on ____.
a. the difficulty of the project and the resources involved
b. the difficulty of the task and the people involved
c. the uniqueness of the project and the difficulty of the task
d. the uniqueness of the project and the people involved
*d. the uniqueness of the project and the people involved
52. MC #22
Achieving high performance on projects requires ____, otherwise called human relations skills.
a. capital skills
b. soft skills
c. light skills
d. hard skills
*b. soft skills
53. MC #23
A(n) ____ focuses on long-term goals and big-picture objectives, while inspiring people to reach those goals.
a. assistant
b. programmer
c. leader
d. manager
c. leader
54. MC #24
A(n) ____ often deals with the day-to-day details of meeting specific goals.
a. manager
b. leader
c. programmer
d. analyst
*c. leader
55. MC #25
Some people say that ____ achieve the vision of a project.
a. leaders
b. managers
c. stakeholders
d. supervisors
*b. managers
56. MC #26
Most people agree that the modern concept of project management began with the ____.
a. Great Wall of China
b. first space shuttle
c. Egyptian pyramids
d. Manhattan Project
*d. Manhattan Project
57. MC #27
The Manhattan Project cost almost $2 billion in ____.
a. 1936
b. 1946
c. 1956
d. 1966
*b. 1946
58. MC #28
In ____, Henry Gantt developed the famous Gantt chart as a tool for scheduling work in factories.
a. 1897
b. 1917
c. 1927
d. 1957
*b. 1917
59. MC #29
A Gantt chart is a standard format for displaying project schedule information by listing project activities and their corresponding start and finish dates in a ____ format.
a. pie chart
b. line graph
c. bar graph
d. calendar
*d. calendar
60. MC #30
During the Cold War years of the 1950s and '60s, ____ continued to be key in refining several project management techniques.
a. NASA
b. the military
c. steel manufacturing
d. marine biology
*b. the military
61. MC #31
The longest path through a network diagram that determines the earliest completion of a project is called the ____ path.
a. essential
b. important
c. critical
d. vital
*c. critical
62. MC #32
By the ____, the U.S. military and its civilian suppliers developed software to assist in managing large projects.
a. 1960s
b. 1970s
c. 1980s
d. 1990s
*b. 1970s
63. MC #33
____ was an early project management software product that helped managers analyze complex schedules for designing aircraft.
a. Artemis
b. Columbia
c. Vega
d. Oberlin
*a. Artemis
64. MC #34
A PMO, or Project ____ Office, is an organizational group responsible for coordinating the project management function throughout an organization.
a. Management
b. Money
c. Municipal
d. Marketing
*a. Management
65. MC #35
Many organizations are now using enterprise or project ____ management software to help manage projects.
a. path
b. portfolio
c. institute
d. office
*b. portfolio
66. MC #36
PMI provides certification as a Project Management ____ (PMP), someone who has documented sufficient project experience and education, agreed to follow the PMI code of professional conduct, and demonstrated knowledge of the field of project management by passing a comprehensive examination.
a. Producer
b. Practitioner
c. Professional
d. Professor
*c. Professional
67. MC #37
Just as passing the CPA exam is a standard for accountants, passing the ____ exam is becoming a standard for project managers.
a. PMI
b. PM
c. PMP
d. PMO
*c. PMP
68. MC #38
The Project Management ____, a Web site for people involved in project management, provides an alphabetical directory of more than 300 project management software solutions.
*a. Center
b. Alliance
c. Consortium
d. Facility
*a. Center
69. MC #39
____ tools are often recommended for small projects and single users.
a. Low-end
b. Midrange
c. High-end
d. Expensive
*a. Low-end
70. MC #40
____ tools, sometimes referred to as enterprise project management software, provide robust capabilities to handle very large projects.
a. Low-end
b. Midrange
c. High-end
d. Inexpensive
*c. High-end
71. CO #1
More than ____________________ million people regard project management as their profession.
Correct Answer(s):
a. 16
b. sixteen
72. CO #2
The "CHAOS" study found that more than ____________________ percent of information technology projects were canceled before completion.
Correct Answer(s):
a. 31
b. thirty-one
73. CO #3
A(n) ____________________ is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result.
Correct Answer(s):
a. project
74. CO #4
The term "____________________" refers to work done in organizations to sustain the business.
Correct Answer(s):
a. operations
75. CO #5
____________________ include people, hardware, software, or other assets.
Correct Answer(s):
a. Resources
76. CO #6
The question, "What unique product or service does the customer or sponsor expect from the project?" is related to the ____________________ of the project.
Correct Answer(s):
a. scope
77. CO #7
The question, "What is the project's budget?" is related to the project's ____________________.
Correct Answer(s):
a. cost
78. CO #8
The ____________________ of project management includes quality along with scope, time, and cost.
Correct Answer(s):
a. quadruple constraint
79. CO #9
____________________ is "the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements."
Correct Answer(s):
a. Project management
80. CO #10
Project management ____________________ describe the key competencies that project managers must develop.
Correct Answer(s):
a. knowledge areas
81. CO #11
Project management tools and ____________________ assist project managers and their teams in carrying out work in all nine knowledge areas.
Correct Answer(s):
a. techniques
82. CO #12
Gantt charts, project network diagrams, critical path analysis, crashing, fast tracking, and schedule performance measurements are examples of tools and techniques for ____________________.
Correct Answer(s):
a. time management
83. CO #13
Companies that excel in project delivery use performance ____________________ to quantify progress.
Correct Answer(s):
a. metrics
84. CO #14
______________________________ refers to the process in which organizations group and manage projects and programs as a portfolio of investments that contribute to the entire enterprise's success.
Correct Answer(s):
a. Project portfolio management
b. Portfolio management
85. CO #15
____________________ skills include effective communication, influencing the organization to get things done, leadership, motivation, negotiation, conflict management, and problem solving.
Correct Answer(s):
a. Soft
86. CO #16
One reason project managers need good ____________________ skills is that to understand, navigate, and meet stakeholders' needs and expectations, they need to lead, communicate, negotiate, solve problems, and influence the organization at large.
Correct Answer(s):
a. soft
87. CO #17
Some people say that, "Managers do things right, and ____________________ do the right things."
Correct Answer(s):
a. leaders
88. CO #18
A(n) ____________________ chart is a standard format for displaying project schedule information.
Correct Answer(s):
a. Gantt
89. CO #19
As computer hardware became smaller and more affordable and ____________________ included graphical and easy to use interfaces, project management software became less expensive and more widely used.
Correct Answer(s):
a. software
90. CO #20
The ___________________________________, an international professional society for project managers founded in 1969, has continued to attract and retain members, reporting 277,221 members
worldwide by August 31, 2008.
Correct Answer(s):
a. PMI
b. Project Management Institute
c. Project Management Institute (PMI)
91. CO #21
Because there are so many people working on projects in various industries, PMI has created Specific ____________________ (SIGs) that enable members to share ideas about project management in their particular application areas, such as information systems.
Correct Answer(s):
a. Interest Groups
92. CO #22
____________________, loosely defined, is a set of principles that guide our decision making based on personal values of what is "right" and "wrong."
Correct Answer(s):
a. Ethics
93. CO #23
____________________ tools, a step up from low-end tools, are designed to handle larger projects, multiple users, and multiple projects.
Correct Answer(s):
a. Midrange
94. CO #24
____________________ is still the most widely used project management software today in the midrange tools category.
Correct Answer(s):
a. Microsoft Project
95. CO #25
____________________ tools are generally licensed on a per-user basis.
Correct Answer(s):
a. High-end