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30 terms

Psychology Exam 1: Chapter 3- Neuroscience and Behavior

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neurons
cells in the nervous system that process and transmit information
sensory neurons
carry incoming information from sense receptors to the brain via the spinal cord
motor neurons
carry outgoing information from the spinal cord to the muscles to produce movement
interneurons
connect sensory, motor, and other interneurons (act as relay stations)
cell body
life support center of a neuron
dendrites
receive and relay information to cell body
axon
transmits information to other neurons, muscles, or glands, connects to other dendrites via terminal buttons
myelin sheath
speeds up the neural impulse
action potential
electrical signal that travels down axon to synapse; fired when excitatory signals minus inhibitory signals exceed a threshold
all-or-none response
stimulation below threshold does not result in an action potential; stimulation at or above threshold is the same action potential
synapse
gap between the terminal buttons of the sending neuron and the dendrites of the receiving neuron
neurotransmitters
chemical messengers that cross synaptic gaps and bind to sites on receiving neurons' dendrites
excess neurotransmitters
reuptake
enzyme deactivation
autoreceptors-relays information at stopping point
p-value
the probability value which proves that results are a direct function of the study (<0.05)
acetylcholine
enables muscles action memory and learning; alzheimer (lo)
dopamine
voluntary muscle control, reward and motivation; schizophrenia (hi), parkinsons (lo)
serotonin
affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal; depression (lo)
norephinephrine
controls alertness and arousal; mood disorders (lo)
glutamate
major excitatory neurotransmitter; seizures, migraines (hi)
GABA
major inhibitory neurotransmitter; seizures, insomnia (lo)
endorphines
affects pain and emotions; pain relief (hi)
agonists
increase action of neurotransmitters; mimic
antagonists
block function of neurotransmitters
peripheral nervous system
sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the body's organs and muscles; consists of the somatic and autonomic nervous systems
somatic nervous system
nerves that convey information into and out of the CNS; can be volunarily controlled to perceive, think, and coordinate behaviors
autonomic nervous system
nerves that involuntarily control blood vessels, body organs, and glands; functions to regulate bodily systems; made up of sympathetic and parasympathetic
sympathetic nervous system
arouses (fight or flight); part of autonomic
parasympathetic nervous system
calms (rest and digest); part of autonomic
the central nervous system
the brain and spinal cord. for very basic behaviors, spinal cord does not need input from the brain
spinal reflexes
simple pathways in the nervous system that contracts muscles