33 terms

Chapter 8


Terms in this set (...)

Color is a property of what?
How can colors change?
Change with light. Change according to their surroundings and juxtaposition with other colors.
What are the properties of color?
Hue, value, and intensity
Be familiar with the basic color wheel.
Consists of 12 hues that can be divided into three categories. Group 1: Primary colors (3). Group 2: Secondary colors(3). Group 3: Tertiary colors(6).
What are the foundation colors?
Red, Yellow, Blue
Name the primary, secondary, and tertiary colors.
Primary: Red, blue, yellow
Secondary: Orange, green, violet
Tertiary: Red-orange, yellow-orange, red-violet, blue-violet, blue-green, yellow-green
What is the difference between shade and tint?
Shade: any hue to which black has been added.
Tint: any hue to which white has been added creating light colors and pastel hues.
What are the characteristics of cool and warm colors?
Cool colors: blues, greens, and some purples, and colors containing these hues. Associated with grass, water, and ice. Generally restful, peaceful, and soothing. Recede and fade into the background; look smaller. Appear formal and often display a lack of unity.

Warm colors: colors (hues) composed of red, orange, and yellow hues. Associated with warm things like the sun, fire, and heat. Active and cheery, generally evoking warm and happy feelings. Dominate an arrangement and look larger. Generally informal and blend easily with one another. Large amounts can be psychologically irritating.
Know about individual colors in floral design and the pros/cons to each color in floral arrangements.
White, red, pink, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, black.
Common in nature; blend easily with other colors and make adjacent colors look cleaner and livelier; reflective qualities add brightness and contrast; varying textures of flowers and foliage are heightened in an all-white bouquet; simple color; portrays elegance and sophistication.
Pg. 138
Lively, stimulating color; embodies strength and dominance; showy in small amounts; demands attention;
Bold and dramatic characteristics-use with care; can result in overcrowded look; demands attention
Complement is green
Pg. 138
Successfully combines with many colors; enhanced by the use of stronger contrasting colors; can portray romance and femininity; bright pinks draw more attention than light pastel pinks.
Complement is mint or light green
Pp. 138-139
Stimulating color; compels attention and adds brightness; tints and shades blend effectively with many colors
Complement is blue
Pg. 139
Reflects a great deal of light; vibrant and highly visible; suggests cheerfulness and sunshine; friendly color; adds spirit and perk to arrangement; blends well with many colors and schemes.
However, when used alone, found monotonous and annoying
Complement is purple
Pg. 139
Generally soothing and restful
Green flowers are not as abundant as other colors
Complement is red
Pg. 139
Peaceful, quiet, and cool
Varies greatly under different lighting; most blue flowers are actually purple; recede and fade into the background when viewed from a distance; dark, deep shades can have a depressing psychological effect
Complement is orange
Pg. 139
A rich and dramatic hue; can appear warm or cool depending on neighboring colors
Complement is yellow
Pp. 139-142
Adds depth, is a versatile neutral, increases color value; makes other colors look darker and richer; can make flowers stand out
Rare; do not appear in nature; most flowers not actually black
Pg. 142
How does color help achieve balance, depth, focal point, rhythm, harmony, and unity?
Color can be used to achieve or maintain visual balance. Depth can be maximized by using a combination of warm and cool colors within an arrangement. Color demands attention, a focal point can be created by using a simple or contrasting colors. Using the same colors at the focal point and throughout the design creates rhythm. Color can unify the parts and create a overall harmonious look by the repetition of color throughout a design.
Pp. 142-143
What are related and contrasting color schemes?
Related: based on a common hue that acts as a unifying element; the colors forming a related scheme may be variations of only one hue or may be variations of several adjacent hues on the color wheel; visually harmonious but may be boring; examples include monochromatic an analogous.

Contrasting: based on unrelated colors from distant parts of the color wheel; visually exciting with great variety; examples include complementary, split complementary, and triadic.
Know the various color schemes by definition and pros/cons to each in floral design.
Related: Achromatic, monochromatic, analogous
Contrasting: complementary, split complementary, triadic
Discordant: double-complement, alternate-complement, tetrad, polychromatic
Achromatic color scheme
"Without color"-generally refers to a white bouquet
Insignificant differences instantly noticeable and important.
Pros: eye is not distracted by other colors, notice slight variations-color, tone, patterns, shapes
Cons: see variations in white color
Monochromatic color scheme
mono "one" and chroma "color"-use of a single hue
Pros: harmonious with unity generally prevailing;
Cons: possible monotonous design;
Analogous color scheme
"similar in function, origin, and structure"- refers to adjacent or neighboring hues. Uses several colors that are next to each other on the color wheel
Modified to include tints, tones, and shades of adjacent hues because real flowers do not always appear in the exact hues from the wheel.
Complementary color scheme
Uses two hues that lie directly opposite from each other on the color wheel.
Juxtaposed hues intensify and complement each other. Lively
Involve the use of a warm and cool color, which causes emotional excitement and enhances visual depth
Split-complementary color scheme
Another form of the complementary scheme
Three-color scheme composed of any hue.
Use the colors on either side of the complementary color being used
Triadic color scheme
"Involving three"
Three colors that are equally spaced from one another
Tints and shades of a triad can soften the sometimes harsh effects of the unrelated colors
Difficult to work with because triad colors are unrelated
Double-complement color scheme
Uses four colors, which can be any two pairs of complements.
Offers tremendous diversity in visual effects
Alternate-complement color scheme
Incorporates a triad, plus one direct complement to any one of the three hues.
Tetrad color scheme
a "group or set of four"-four hues used are equidistant from one another on the color wheel
One primary, one seconday, and two tertiary colors
Use different and unrelated colors
Polychromatic color scheme
poly "many" and chroma "color"-uses many varied hues from the color wheel
Highly dynamic
Coordinate the values of each hue in the scheme to bring unity to the composition.
When determining color schemes with fresh flowers, what color portions of the plant materials are considered neutral?
The green already present in the foliage and in the flower stems.
Which "colors" are considered neutral, and can be added to floral arrangements or color schemes without changing the name of the scheme?
White, black and gray