1877: Settled dispute which had culminated in Russo-Turkish War of 1877 over THE EASTERN QUESTION. The Eastern Question involved what to do in the Balkans as the Ottoman Empire(sick man of Europe) continued to decay. Russia had declared war on Turkey and invaded area of Rumania. Russian troops had crossed the Danube and stormed Kars. Took Plevna in Bulgaria. Serbs in Balkans had declared war on Turkey. TREATY OF SAN STEPHANO, if allowed to stand, would have given Russia virtual hegemony in Balkans. British were very much concerned by Russian advances - upset to Balance of Power. Germany, under Bismarck, decided to intervene and suggested this Congress (per old Concert of Europe arrangement) in which Bismarck intended to be the "honest broker" to avoid major upset/conflict.
-recognition of Rumania, Serbia and Montenegro as independent states
-establishment of Bulgaria
-Austria acquires Bosnia and Herzegovina
-Brit gets Cyprus
-Russian expansion checked
-reaffirmation of independence of Turkey - tho' Turkey been "carved."
-Brits keeping control of Mediterranean
BoP INTACT - FOR NOW
Prompted Russian hostility toward Germany (host)
This prompts Bismarck to conceive of new system of alliances.