APUSH Unit 3b
The Articles of Confederation, The Constitution, and the early years of the Republic
Terms in this set (50)
A government structure in which some powers are given to the national government and other powers are reserved for more local governments
checks and balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states.
To be ruled by a mob. An example of people who used this method would be the American colonists. When England would impose taxes and acts, such as the Stamp Act, the colonists would become angered and protest it by forming mobs and doing such things as ransacking houses and stealing the money of stamp agents. The Stamp Act was eventually nullified because all the stamp agents had been forced to resign leaving no one to uphold it.
A philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. The government is based on consent of the governed.
According to the compact theory of the Union the states retained all powers not specifically delegated to the central government by the Constitution.
A belief that ultimate power resides in the people.
(n) a lack of government and law; confusion
Society of Cincinnati
Group of Continental Army officers formed a military order in1783. They were criticized for their aristocratic ideals.
A compromise that proposed two houses of Congress; one where a state's population would determine representation and another where all states were represented equally
Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
A group of people named by each state legislature to select the president and vice president
Land Ordinance of 1785
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
Three Fifths Compromise
Compromise between northern and southern states at the Constitutional Convention that three-fifths of the slave population would be counted for determining direct taxation and representation in the House of Representatives.
1787 law that set up a government for the Northwest Territory and served as a model for other new territories and as a plan for admitting new states to the Union
Anti-Federalists vs Federalists
The Anti Federalists openly opposed the Constitution because they felt it gave too much power to the national government and too little power to the states. They also opposed the Constitution because it lacked a bill of rights.
A 1787 rebellion in which ex-Revolutionary War soldiers attempted to prevent foreclosures of farms as a result of high interest rates and taxes
Virginia Plan vs New Jersey Plan
Virginia plan- The legislature was more powerful, as it chose people to serve in the executive and judicial branches. Two houses (bicameral). The House of Reps was elected by the people and the Senate was elected by the state legislatures. Both were represented proportionally. New jersey plan- The legislature appoints people to serve in the executive branch, and the executive branch selects the justices of the Supreme Court. One house (unicameral). States would be represented equally, so all states had the same power.
A series of eighty-five political essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay in support of ratification of the U.S. Constitution.
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
1808 and 1812; Democratic-Republican; notable events include the War of 1812, let the charter of the First Bank of the United States expire, but realized it was difficult to finance a war without the bank, so he chartered the 2nd Bank of the United States father of constitution
(GM)leader of anti federalists that agreed that the Articles Of Confederation wasn't strong enough, but thought that the Constitutional Convention had one too far; Bill of Rights
A convention held in September 1786 to consider problems of trade and navigation, attended by five states and important because it issued the call to Congress and the states for what became the Constitutional Convention
loose and strict interpretations of the Constitution
this interpretation allows the government to do anything which the Constitution does not specifically forbid it from doing. this interpretation forbids the government from doing anything except what the Constitution specifically empowers it to do.
..., Virginian, architect, author, governor, and president. Lived at Monticello. Wrote the Declaration of Independence. Second governor of Virgina. Third president of the United States. Designed the buildings of the University of Virginia.
An American general during the Revolutionary War. he commanded Washington's artillery. He was also Washington's Secretary of War.
Also one of the supporters of the new Constitution and along with Alexander Hamilton and James Madison was part of making the Federalist paper essays First Chief of Justice
issue of funding at par and assumption
entire national debt consumes debts of individual states, federal government would pay off its debt, so people pay to obliviate the debt
Powers not specifically mentioned in the constitution
A tax on the production or sale of a good.
A group of presidential advisers not mentioned in the Constitution, although every president has had one. Today the cabinet is composed of 14 secretaries and the attorney general.
Bill of Rights
Although the Anti-Federalists failed to block the ratification of the Constitution, they did ensure that the Bill of Rights would be created to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny. The Bill of Rights, drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens.
(GW) In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
Pro French, farmers, strong state governments, low taxes, individual rights, small national government
Judiciary Act of 1789
A law passed by the first Congress to establish the federal court system.
1796; Federalist; notable events include XYZ affair, the passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts, and his appointment of John Marshall (Federalist) as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and numerous federalist "midnight judges" second P first VP
XYZ Affair and Talleyrand
An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand.
-The name given to several renegade countries on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa who demanded tribute in exchange for refraining from attacking ships in the Mediterranean. Jefferson refused to pay them resulted in an undeclared naval war.
The idea advanced by Rousseau, Locke, and Jefferson, that government is created by voluntary agreement among the people involved and that revolution is justified if government breaks the compact by exceeding its authority.
A state's refusal to recognize an act of Congress that it considers unconstitutional
1789-1799. Period of political and social upheaval in France, during which the French government underwent structural changes, and adopted ideals based on Enlightenment principles of nationalism, citizenship, and inalienable rights. Changes were accompanied by violent turmoil and executions.
1794 - It was signed in the hopes of settling the growing conflicts between the U.S. and Britain. It dealt with the Northwest posts and trade on the Mississippi River. It was unpopular with most Americans because it did not punish Britain for the attacks on neutral American ships. It was particularly unpopular with France, because the U.S. also accepted the British restrictions on the rights of neutrals.
gave Americans free navigation of the Mississippi River and the right to trade at New Orleans
Neutrality Proclamation of 1793
(GW) , the United States would not support either side in the war and Americans could not aid either Britain or France
Alien and Sedition Acts 1798
1798 Act that criminalized speech that was derisive to the government. Later ruled unconstitutional, Andrew Jackson issued blanket pardon in 1801
Battle of Fallen Timbers
1794 Battle between US and Miami Confederacy natives, supported by Brits. In Ohio. US wins, natives lose hope of holding onto land
Washington's Farewell Address
speech Washington gives upon leaving office, he warns against the two party system, and permanent foreign alliances
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
Treaty of Greenville
(1795) an agreement between Native American confederation leaders and the U.S. government that gave the United States Indian lands in the Northwest Territory and guaranteed that U.S. citizens could safely travel through the region
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.