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The Gilded Age

The national railroad strike of 1877 started when

the four largest railroads cut salaries by 10 percent.

The first transcontinental railroad was created in 1869 when

the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific railroads met in Ogden, Utah

As a solution to the depression that followed the panic of 1873, debtors strongly advocated

inflation through issuance of far more greenback paper currency.

President James A. Garfield was assassinated

by a deranged, disappointed office seeker.

The vast, integrated, continental U.S. market greatly enhanced the American inclination toward

mass manufacturing of standardized industrial products.

The Crédit Mobilier scandal involved

railroad construction kickbacks.

Labor unrest during the Hayes administration stemmed from

years of depression and deflation that undermined workers' living standards.

In the wake of anti-Chinese violence in California, the United States Congress

passed a law prohibiting the immigration of Chinese laborers to America.

The Pendleton Act required people applying for many federal government jobs to

take a competitive examination.

The political developments of the l890s were largely shaped by

the most severe and extended economic depression up to that time.

The term "The Gilded Age" was

a novel written by Samuel Clemens that ridiculed the corruption of the period

Economic unrest and the repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act led to the rise of the pro-silver leader

William Jennings Bryan.

To help corporations, the courts ingeniously interpreted the Fourteenth Amendment, which was designed to protect the rights of ex-slaves, so as to

avoid corporate regulation by the states.

The people who found fault with the captains of industry mostly argued that these men

built their corporate wealth and power by exploiting workers.

The greatest economic consequence of the transcontinental railroad network was that it

united the nation into a single, integrated national market.

Agreements between railroad corporations to divide the business in a given area and share the profits were called


The flagship Newport "cottage" was


The first federal regulatory agency designed to protect the public interest from business combinations was the

Interstate Commerce Commission.

One of the methods by which post-Civil War business leaders increased their profits was

elimination of as much competition as possible.

The organizational technique of vertical integration of all facets of an industry, from raw material to final product, within a single company was pioneered by

Andrew Carnegie with the steel industry.

John D. Rockefeller's organizational technique of horizontal integration involved

forcing small competitors to assign stock to Standard oil or lose their business.

J.P. Morgan undermined competition by placing officers of his bank on the boards of supposedly independent companies that he wanted to control. This method was known as a(n)

interlocking directorate.

America's first billion-dollar corporation was

United States Steel.

The "Gospel of Wealth" endorsed by Andrew Carnegie

held that the wealthy should display moral responsibility in the use of their God-given money.

Believers in the doctrine of "survival of the fittest," like Herbert Spencer and William Graham Sumner, believed that

the wealthy deserved their riches because they had demonstrated greater abilities than the poor.

The Sherman Anti-Trust Act prohibited

private corporations or organizations from engaging in "combinations in restraint of trade."

During the age of industrialization, the South

remained overwhelmingly rural and agricultural.

One of the greatest changes that industrialization brought about in the lives of workers was

the need for them to adjust their lives to the time clock.

Match each labor organization below with the correct description.
A. National Labor Union
1. the "one big union" that championed producer cooperatives and industrial arbitration
B. Knights of Labor
2. a social-reform union killed by the depression of the 1870s
C. American Federation of Labor
3. an association of unions pursuing higher wages, shorter working hours, and better working conditions

A-2, B-1, C-3

The major factor in drawing country people off the farms and into the big cities was the

availability of industrial jobs.

One of the early symbols of the dawning era of consumerism in urban America was

large department stores.

The New Immigrants who came to the United States after 1880

were culturally different from previous immigrants.

Settlement houses, such as Hull House, engaged in all of the following activities except

evangelical religious instruction.

The growing prohibition movement especially reflected the concerns of

middle class women.

Match each Indian chief below with his tribe.
A. Chief Joseph 1. Apache
B. Sitting Bull 2. Cheyenne
C. Geronimo 3. Nez Percé
4. Sioux

A-3, B-4, C-1

In 1890, when the superintendent of the census announced that a stable frontier line was no longer discernible, Americans were disturbed because

the idea of an endlessly open West had been an element of America's history from the beginning.

As a result of the complete defeat of Captain William Fetterman's command in 1866

the government abandoned the Bozeman Trail and guaranteed the Sioux their lands.

A new round of warfare between the Sioux and U.S. Army began in 1874 when

Colonel George Custer discovered gold on Sioux land in the Black Hills.

The Plains Indians were finally forced to surrender

by the coming of the railroads and the virtual extermination of the buffalo.

A Century of Dishonor (1881), which chronicled the dismal history of Indian-white relations, was authored by

Helen Hunt Jackson.

The United States government's outlawing of the Indian Sun (Ghost) Dance in 1890 resulted in the

Battle of Wounded Knee.

The Dawes Severalty Act was designed to promote Indian


The largest single source of silver and gold in the frontier of the West was discovered in 1859 in


One major problem with the Homestead Act was that

160 acres were inadequate for productive farming on the rain-scarce Great Plains.

The root cause of the American farmers' problems after 1880 was

low prices and a deflated currency.

The Populist party arose as the direct successor to the

Farmers' Alliance.

The severe economic depression of the 1890s strengthened the Populists' argument that

wage earners and farmers alike were victims of an oppressive economic system.

President Grover Cleveland justified federal intervention in the Pullman strike of 1894 on the grounds that

the strike was preventing the transit of U.S. mail.

In 1900, the two largest cities in the world were

London and New York City.

New Immigrant groups were regarded with special hostility by many nativist Americans because

their religions were distinctly different and some New Immigrants were politically radical.

In the 1890s, white collar positions for women as secretaries, department store clerks, and telephone operators were largely reserved for

native-born Americans.

The Pullman strike created the first instance of

government use of a federal court injunction to break a strike.

In the election of 1896, the major issue became

free and unlimited coinage of silver.

The numerous near-wars and diplomatic crises of the United States in the late 1880s and 1890s demonstrated

the aggressive new national mood.

A major factor in the shift in American foreign policy toward imperialism in the late nineteenth century was the

need for overseas markets for increased industrial and agricultural production.

Before a treaty annexing Hawaii to the United States could be rushed through the U.S. Senate in 1893

President Harrison's term expired and anti-imperialist Grover Cleveland became president.

Hawaii's Queen Liliuokalani was forced from power in 1893 because

she opposed annexation to the United States and insisted that native Hawaiians should continue to control Hawaii.

The two late-nineteenth-century newspaper publishers whose competition for circulation fueled the rise of sensationalistic yellow journalism were

William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer.

The battleship Maine was sunk by

an accidental internal explosion on the ship.

Americans favored providing aid to the Cuban revolutionaries for all of the following reasons except

a belief that Spain's control of Cuba presented a national security threat to the United States.

Alfred Thayer Mahan argued that

the United States should construct a fleet of battleships.

During the boundary dispute between Venezuela and Britain, the United States

threatened war with Britain and asserted its domination of Latin America.

President William McKinley asked Congress to declare war on Spain mainly because

the American public and many leading Republicans demanded it.

The Teller Amendment

guaranteed that the United States would support Cuban independence after Spain was ousted.

Anti-imperialists presented all of the following arguments against acquiring the Philippine Islands except that

the islands were still rightfully Spain's, since they were taken after the armistice had been signed.

The Philippine insurrection was finally broken in 1901 when

Emilio Aguinaldo, the Filipino leader, was captured.

The major alternative route, besides Panama, that was seriously considered as the location for a canal between oceans was across


The United States signed the the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty with __________, the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty with __________, and the Gentlemen's Agreement with __________.

Britain; Panama; Japan

Theodore Roosevelt strongly encouraged the Panamanians to revolt against Colombia because

the Colombian senate had rejected the American offer to buy a canal route across Panama.

Theodore Roosevelt became involved in the peace settlement for the Russo-Japanese War

when Japan secretly asked him to help.

The primary diplomatic result of Roosevelt's diplomatic ending of the Russo-Japanese War was that

both Japan and Russia became increasingly hostile to the United States.

The Philippine nationalist who led the insurrection against both Spanish rule and the later United States occupation was

Emilio Aguinaldo.

The end of the Cuban War came after the last substantial Spanish fleet was destroyed at the Battle of


The greatest loss of life for American fighting men during the Spanish-American War resulted from

sickness in both Cuba and the United States.

At the time, the greatest controversy emerging from the Spanish-American War was over

the U.S. colonial acquisition of the Philippines.

American imperialists who advocated acquisition of the Philippines especially stressed

their economic potential for American businessmen seeking trade with China and other Asian nations.

By acquiring the Philippine Islands at the end of the Spanish-American War, the United States

assumed rule over millions of Asian people.
became a full-fledged East Asian power.
assumed commitments that would be difficult to defend.
developed popular support for a big navy.

In 1899, guerrilla warfare broke out in the Philippines because

the United States refused to give the Filipino people their independence.

America's initial Open Door policy was essentially an argument to promote

free trade in China.

China's Boxer Rebellion was an attempt to

throw out or kill all foreigners.

In response to the Boxer Rebellion, the United States

abandoned its general principles of nonentanglement and noninvolvement in overseas conflict.

Construction of an isthmian canal across Central America was motivated mainly by

a desire to improve defense by allowing rapid naval movements between two oceans.

The secret Gentlemen's Agreement that President Theodore Roosevelt worked out with the Japanese in 1907-1908

caused Japan to halt the flow of laborers to America in return for the repeal of a racist school decree by the San Francisco School Board.

The real heart of the progressive movement was the effort by reformers to

use the government as an agency of human welfare.

The muckrakers signified much about the nature of the progressive reform movement because they

trusted in publicity to reform capitalism rather than overthrow it.

The Morrill Act of 1862

granted public lands to states to support higher education.

The leading progressive organization advocating prohibition of liquor was

the Women's Christian Temperance Union.

Female progressives often justified their reformist political activities on the basis of

their being essentially an extension of women's traditional roles as wives and mothers.

The religious movement that was closely linked to progressivism was

the Social Gospel.

Lincoln Steffens, in his series of articles entitled The Shame of the Cities

unmasked the corrupt alliance between big business and municipal government.

Political progressivism

emerged in both major parties, in all regions, at all levels of government.

To regain the power that the people had lost to the interests, Progressives advocated all of the following except


The public outcry after the horrible Triangle Shirtwaist fire led many states to pass

antisweatshop and workers' compensation laws for job injuries.

The primary difference between preservationists and conservationists was that

preservationists sought to protect the wilderness from all commercial exploitation while conservationists advocated its efficient use

Progressive reform at the level of city government seemed to indicate that the Progressives' highest priority was

governmental efficiency.

Teddy Roosevelt believed that large corporate trusts

were bad only if they acted as monopolies against the public interest.

Passage of the Federal Meat Inspection Act was inspired by the publication of

Upton Sinclair's The Jungle.

Teddy Roosevelt helped to end the 1902 strike in the anthracite coal mines by

threatening to seize the mines and to operate them with federal troops.

As a part of his reform program, Teddy Roosevelt advocated all of the following except

guaranteed recognition of labor unions.

According to the text, Teddy Roosevelt's most important and enduring achievement may have been

conserving American resources and protecting the environment.

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