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Psychology

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biological psychologist
Dr. Hernandez is studying neurotransmitter abnormalities in depressed patients. She would escribe herself as a
neurons
Dendrites are branching extensions of
aphasia
A car accident damaged areas of Cliff's left temporal and frontal lobes causing him to have difficulties speaking an understanding language. Cliff's disorder is called
autonomic nervous system
Heartbeat, digestion, and other self-regulating bodily functions are governed by the
axon
The longest part of a neuron carrying messages to a leg muscle is likely to be the
endorphins
Melissa has just completed running a marathon. She is so elated that she feels little fatigue or discomfort. Her lack of pain is probably due to the result of the release of
hormones; adrenal
Epinephrine and norepinephrine are both ____ that are released by the ________ gland.
dopamine
Schizophrenia is most closely linked with excess receptor activity of the neurotransmitter
pituitary
The gland that regulates body growth is the
word recognition
Which is typically controlled by the left hemisphere: the left side of the body, perceptual skills, spatial reasoning, or word recognition?
heightened openness to suggestion
Hypnosis involves a state of
a pattern of biological functioning that occurs on a roughly 24-hour cycle
Circadian rhythm refers to
insomnia
A recurring difficulty in falling asleep is called
periodic overwhelming periods of uncontrollable sleepiness
Narcolepsy is a disorder involving
REM sleep
Fast and jerky movements of the eyes are especially likely to be associated with
its underlying but censored meaning
According to Freud, the latent content of a dream refers to
decrease; increase
Stimulants ________ appetite and _________ self-confidence.
selective attention
Our inability to consciously process all the sensory information available to us at any single point in time best illustrated the necessity of
tolerance
The need to take larger and larger doses of a drug before experiencing its effects is called
depressant; depressant
In large doses, alcohol is a _________; in small doses, it is a ____________.
gender schema
The belief that boys are more independent than girls is a
mutation
A random error in gene replication is known as a
natural selection
Evolutionary psychology studies the roots of behavioral and mental processes using the principles of
a single egg by a single sperm
Identical twins originate from the fertilization of
social harmony
A collectivist culture is especially likely to emphasize the importance of
genetic profile
The human genome refers to our shared human
personality traits
A behavior geneticist would be most interested in studying heredity influences on
heritable traits can be influenced by environmental factors
Gender differences in heritable personality traits cannot necessarily be attributed to male-female genetic differences because
emotional excitability
An infants temperament refers most directly to its
observation and imitation play a crucial role in the gender-typing process
Social learning theorists emphasize that
attachment
The process of imprinting involves the formation of a(n)
adolescent
According to Erikson, achieving a sense of identity is the special task of the
affirmation or self-defined ethical principles
According to Kohlberg, post-conventional morality involves
substance abuse
Severe and prolonged child sexual abuse places children at risk for
embryonic
The heart begins to beat during the ________ period of prenatal development.
brain abnormalities
The symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome are most likely to include
warmly supportive parenting and children's self-esteem are correlated
If warmly supportive parents are especially like to have children with high self-esteem, this would most clearly indicate that
autism
An impaired theory of mind is most closely associated with
the difficulty perceiving things from another person's point of view
According to Piaget, egocentrism refers to
sensorimotor
Olivia understands her world primarily by grasping and sucking easily available objects. Olivia is clearly in Piaget's ___________ stage.
raises; dilates
In a stressful situation, the sympathetic nervous system __________ blood-sugar levels and ___________ the pupils of the eye.
endorphins
Opiate drugs occupy the same receptor sites as
stimulates; increasing
Sleep deprivation ________ the production of body fat by ___________ levels of the stress hormone cortisol,
selective attention
While reading a novel, Raoul isn't easily distracted by the sounds of TV or even by his brothers' loud arguments. This best illustrates
collectivism
Displays of self effacing humility are most characteristic of those who value
gender schemas
Because he believes that crying is a feminine trait, 14-year-old George has difficulty admitting that a movie makes him tearful. His experience best illustrates the impact of
stimulants; depressants
Amphetamines are to _______ as barbiturates are to ________.
certain events have a particularly strong impact on development
A critical period is a phase during which
secure attachment
Although 3-year-old Adam happily explores the attractive toys located in the dentist's waiting room, he periodically returns to his mother's side for brief moments. Adam most clearly displays signs of
postconventional
Mark believes that choosing to violate government laws is morally justifiable if it is done to protect the lives of innocent people. Kohlberg would suggest that this illustrates ________ morality.
glands
The endocrine system consists of
a biopsychosocial approach
An integrated explanation of human behavior provided by the neuroscience, cognitive, social-cultural, and other perspectives in psychology is most clearly provided by
low; low
Depressed mood states are linked to ______ levels of serotonin and __________ levels of norepinephrine.
preconventional
Jarrud thinks he should obey his techers only if they are carefully watching him. Kohlberg would suggest that Jarrud demonstrates a(n) ___________ morality.
peripheral
The two major divisions of the nervous system are the central and the _________ nervous systems.
receive incoming signals from other neurons
The function of dendrites is to
autonomic nervous system
Messages are transmitted from your spinal cord to your heart muscles by the
barbiturates and opiates
depressants are drugs such as
develops through a series of stages
Piaget was convinced that the mind of a child
endorphins
Natural, opiate-like neurotranmitters linked to pain control are called
fraternal twins who were raised apart
Two individuals are most likely to differ in personality if they are
religious beliefs
Adopted children are especially likely to have similar _______ if raised in the same home.
Freudian psychologists
The tendency to exaggerate the impact of parents' child-rearing practices on children's personality has been most characteristic of
solve arithmetic problems
Damage to the left cerebral hemisphere is most likely to reduce people's ability to
clinical
Dr. Stevens provides psychotherapy to people who suffer from excessive anxiety. Dr. Stevens is most likely a _________ psychologist.
marijuana; hallucinogen
THC, the active ingredient in _______, is classified as a __________.
role confusion
Jessica acts so differently with her parents than with her girlfriends that she often thinks her personality is completely phony. Erik Erikson would suggest that Jessica is experiencing
egocentrism
Four-year-old Jennifer mistakenly believes that her mother would like to receive a toy doll as a Christmas present. This best illustrates Piaget's concept of
left cerebral hemisphere
Research with split-brain patients suggests that the ________ typically constructs the theories people offer to explain their own behaviors.
psychodynamic
Focusing on the extent to which behavior is influenced by motives outside our own awareness is most relevant to the _______ perspective.
autism
Deficient social interaction and an impaired understanding of others' states of mind is most characteristic of
the brain and the spinal cord
The central nervous system consists of
Erikson's psychosocial development theory
The process of developing a sense of identity during adolescence was highlighted by
nature versus nurture
Debates as to whether alcohol abuse is biologically determined or culturally influenced are most relevant to the issue of
junction between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron
A synapse is a(n)
decreasing; decreasing
Over the last century, Western parents have placed _________ priority on teaching children to respect and obey parents and _________ priority on teaching them loyalty to their country.
a PET scan
What procedure would be most useful for detecting the brain areas that are most active as a person performs mathematical calculations.
authoritarian
"I don't care whether you want to do the dishes, you will do so because I said so!" This statement is most representative of a(n) ___________ parenting style.
our awareness of ourselves and our environment
Consciousness is
adolescence
According to Erikson, trust is to infancy as identity is to
behaviorism
The school of thought in psychology that systematically turned away from the study of consciousness during the first half of the last century was
reflex
A simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus is called a(n)
investigating the personal suitability of various occupational and social roles
Erikson would have suggested that adolescents can most effectively develop a sense of identity by
sense of object permanence
During Piaget's sensorimotor stage, children acquire a
body odors
By a week after birth, infants are able to distinguish between their mothers' and strangers'
integrity
According to Erikson, older adults can most effectively cope with the prospect of their own death if they have achieved a sense of
Conditioned Response (CR)
You repeatedly hear a tone just before having a puff of air directed at your eye. Blinking at the tone without a puff of air presented is a
operant conditioning
If children get attention from their parents for doing cartwheels, they will repeat the trick in anticipation of more attention. This best illustrates
conditioned stimulus
Pavlov noticed that dogs began salivating at the mere sight of the person who regularly brought food to them. For the dogs, the sight of the person became a(n)
classical conditioning
If you have a "frightening experience" immediately after hearing a strange sound, your fear may be aroused after you hear that sound again. This best illustrates
conditioned stimulus
Months after she was raped, Courtney's heart pounds merely at the sight of the place in which she was attacked. The location of her attack is most likely a(n) ________ of her anxiety.
shaping
In teaching her son to play basketball, Mrs. Richards initially enforces him with praise for simply dribbling while standing still, then only for walking while dribbling, and finally only for running while dribbling. She uses a procedure known as
conditioned
If the onset of a light reliably signals the onset of food, a rat in the Skinner box will work to turn on the light. In this case, the light is a __________ reinforcer.
Unconditioned Response (UR)
Blinking in response to a puff of air directed at your eye is a
observational learning
If one chimpanzee watches another chimp solve a puzzle for a food reward, the first chimp may thereby learn how to solve the puzzle. This best illustrates
observable behavior
John B. Watson believed that psychology should be the science of
high; low
Mary's bathroom scale always overstates people's actual weight by exactly six pounds. The scale has _________ reliability and ________ validity.
heritability
The extent to which differences in intelligence among a group of people are attributable to genetic factors is known as the _________ of intelligence.
creativity
University students who focus on the interest and challenge of their schoolwork rather than on simply meeting deadlines and securing good grades are especially likely to demonstrate
prototype
We more quickly recognize that a blue jay is a bird than that a penguin is a bird because a blue jay more closely resembles our _________ of a bird.
reliability
When retested on the WAIS, people's second scores generally match their first scores quite closely. This indicates that the test has a high degree of
spelling bee
Girls are more likely to outperform boys in a
analytical intelligence
Superior performance on the Stanford-Binet most clearly corresponds with Sternberg's concept of
125
An 8-year-old who responds to the original Stanford-Binet with the proficiency of an average 10-year-old was said to have an IQ of
savant syndrome
Although diagnosed with autism and hardly able to speak coherently, 18-year-old Andrew can produce intricate and detailed drawings of scenes he has viewed only once. Andrew illustrates a condition known as
emotional intelligence
When Phoebe strongly disagrees with her sister's opinion, she effectively controls her own anger and responds with empathy to her sister's frustration regarding their dispute. Her behavior best illustrates
bulimia nervosa
The onset of _______ often begins after a dieter has broken diet restrictions and gorged.
an excessive fear of becoming fat
Anorexia nervosa is typically characterized by
adequate clothing; self-esteem
According to Maslow, our need for _______ must be met before we are preoccupied with satisfying our need for _________.
drive reduction
Psychologists have used four perspectives in their efforts to explain motivation. These include an emphasis on instincts, optimum arousal, a hierarchy of motives, and
incentives
On some college football teams, players are rewarded for outstanding performance with a gold star on their helmets. This practice best illustrates the use of
reduced self-awareness and are less likely to use condoms
Teens who use alcohol prior to sexual intercourse experience
drive
An aroused, motivated state that often is triggered by a physiological need is called a(n)
the specific body weight maintained automatically by most adults over long periods of time
The set point is
instinct
A complex, unlearned, and fixed pattern of behavior common to all members of a species is called a(n)
drive-reduction theory
Victims of a famine will ofte eat unappetizing and nutritionally poor foods simply to relieve their constant hunger. Their behavior is best explained in terms of
epinephrine
The fight-or-flight response is associated with the release of ________ into the bloodstream.
decreases salivation and increases blood pressure
Activation of the sympathetic nervous system
Andre, a competitive, easily-angered journalist
Who is the best example of Type A personality?
believe they cannot change a stressful situation
People tend to use emotion-focused rather than problem-focused coping strategies when they
increases; increases
Aerobic exercise ________ the body's production of serotonin and _______ its production of endorphins.
facial expressions
The most universally understood way of expressing emotion is through
resistance
The second phase of the general adaption syndrome is characterized by
respiration
A lie detector test using a polygraph monitors a person's
angry
We find especially difficult to detect from other people's facial expressions whether they are
irritable; calm
Type A personality is to Type B personality as __________ is to _________.