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56 terms

Cell & Cell Membrane

Biology College 101
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The chromosomal hereditary material is packaged in this organelle in eukaryotic cells but not in prokaryotic cells. This organelle is
Nucleus
The peptodoglycan of the bacterial cell wall contains a carbohydrate matrix linked together by short chains of
Amino Acids
Prokaryotic cell movement is attributed to the
Cilia & Flagella
Photosynthetic bacterial membranes are located in the
Plasma Membrane
Plant cells often have a large membrane bound sac that is used for storing water and other substances. This organelle is called a
Central Vacuole
Some ribosomes are embedded into
rough ER
Ribosomes are
large mollecullar combination of protein & RNA
The eukaryotic organelle that is directky involved in the transport of proteins synthesized on the surface of the rough ER is called
golgi complex
In eukaryotes, mitochondria are the organelles primarily involved in
energy production
Nuclear pores apparently permit the passage of only
water
Necleolus of the nucleus is the site of
ribosome assembly
Chromosomes can be condensed into compact structures, visible with the light mrcroscope, but usually only
during cell division
Flattened sacks of membranes apparently involved in the packaging and expert of molecules synthesized inthe cell are known as
golgi apparatus
Peroxisomes in anima cells, and glyoxosomes in plant cells are examples of
microbodies
Mitochondria and chloroplasts are the other organelles besides the nucleus that contain
DNA
the organeleinvolved in the oxygen requiring process by which the energy in macromolecules is stored in ATP is the
Mitochondria
The endosymbiotic theory is supported by the finding of nun nuclear DNA in
mitochondria & chloroplasts
Plants, fungi, & bacteria all have
cell walls
__ is not visible by use of a light microscope
large virus
The lipid layer that forms the foundation of cell membrane is primarily composed of molecules called
phoslipids
While water continually orients phoslipids into a lipid bilayer, it does not fix the lipids permanently into position. Thus, the bilayer is considered to be ___ in nature
Fluid
Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a membrane...one or more of the
solutes
plasma membrane is a thin sheet of lipid embedded w
proteins
membrane proteins are not soluble in water
hydrophobic
same concentration of dissolved molecules as of its outside enviroment
isotonic
transport of solute across a membrane, up its concentration gradient, using protein carriers driven by the expenditure of chemical energy
amphiathetic
the fluid nature of the membrane is attributed to a lateral movement
phoslipid molecules
outer surface of the plasma membrane there are marker molecules that identify the cell type, often these molecules are
carbohydrate schains
two solutions have unequal concentrations of a solute, the solution w the lower concentration
hypotonic
actual transport of protons by the proton pump is mediated by a transmembrane protein which undergoes a change in its
conformation
"cell eating"
phagocytosis
osmosis can only occur if water travels through the
pemeable membrane
cell walled organisms cannot carry out
endocytosis
in a single sodium-potassium pump cycle, ATP is used up with the result that
3 sodiums leave
the accumulation of amino acids and sugars in animal cels occurs through
coupled transport
cholesterol functions in the plasma membrane to
maintain fluidity
Fluid Mosiac Model included
membranes & proteins
If a cell biologist placed cells into an enviroment in which a chemical has been added that blocks the function of these transport proteins, which process will be blocked?
active transport
Requirement for facilitated diffusion include
always w the concentration gradient, never against
Researchers should use __solution yo cause blood cell lysis
hyposmotic
effect of cyclodextrin treatment
disruption of lipid rafts
__ Does not infuence membrane fluidity
hydrogen bonding
Cytoskeleton
is responsble for the cells shape & movement
Endosymbiosis
is the generally accepted evolutionary process which created the organelles, chloroplasts, and motochondria.
The delivery system of eukaryotic cells called the __ can collect, package, modify, and transport molecules
Golgi apparatus
DNA is tightly packaged with proteins into a membrane-bound structure called a
Nucleus
Mitochondria
is important in respiration, while chloroplasts are involved in photosynthesis
Microfilaments such as actin, microtubles, & the intermediate filaments form the cell suppporting structure called the
cytoskeleton
Animal cells excrete glycoproteins outside of the plasma membrane to produce __ which is directly linked to the cytoskeleton.
extra cellular matrix
Geneticmaterial of which kind of cells is included in a single, circular molecule of DNA devoid of any histone proteins?
bacteria
Cell crawling is not essential for
cytoskeleton reorganization
One of the relationships that exists b/t ribosomes & lysosones is that
ribosomes produces enzymes
If you could create an artificial cell, you must include
ribosomes
a mutation in an integrin would not affect
communication b/t the nucleus & cytoskeleton
Hormones
are not found as membrane proteins
"cell drinking"
pinocytosis