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what does the small intestine include?

duodenum, jejunum and ileum

what is the ileum?

longest portion of small intestine

what supplies blood to the numerous branches of the small intestine?

superior mesenteric artery and vein

what does the mesentary proper support?

the branches of the superior mesenteric artery and vein, lymphatics and nerves that supply the jejunum and ileum

what are plicae circulars?

transverse folds contained in the intestinal mucosa

what does the mucosa of the small intestine form?

small projections called intestinal villi

what is the function of intestinal villi?

increase the surface area for absorption

what determines the primary functions of the regions of the small intestine?

histological specializations

characteristics of duodendum?

1. contains duodenal (Brenner's) glands that aid the crypts in producing mucus and 2. receives the secretions of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct

what do the lamina propria of the jejunum and ileum contain?

large groups of aggregated lymphoid nodules (Peyer's patches)

functions of intestinal juice?

1. moistens the chime; 2. helps buffer acids; 3. dissolves digestive enzymes and products of digestion

what are secretin and cholecystokinin (CCK)?

2 hormones important in the coordination of digestive activities

what do parasympathetic (vagal) innervations do?

stimulate digestive function

what does sympathetic stimulation do?

inhibits activity along the digestive tract

another name for large intestine?

large bowel

where does large intestine begin and end?

begins as a pouch inferior to the terminal portion of the ileum and ends at the anus

main functions of the large intestine?

1. reabsorb water and compact feces; 2. absorb vitamins by bacteria; 3. store fecal material prior to defacation

divisions of large intestine?

cecum, colon, rectum

what does cecum do?

collect and stores materials arriving from the ileum

what does the ilium open into?

the cecum at the ileal papilla

what forms the ileocecal valve?

muscles encircling the opening of the ileum

what is appendix attached to?

the cecum

what does appendix function as a part of?

lymphatic system

how does colon differ in structure from small intestine?

it has a larger diameter and thinner wall than small intestine

four subdivisions of colon?

ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid

where does rectum terminate?

in the anal canal leading to the anus

what do internal and external anal sphincters control?

passage of fecal material to the anus

what triggers defecation reflex?

distension of the rectal wall

what are major histological features of the colon?

1. lack of villi; 2. abundance of goblet cells; 3. distinctive mucus-secreting intestinal glands

how does movement from cecum to the transverse colon occur?

slowly, via peristalsis and haustral churning

how does movement from the transverse to the sigmoid colon occur?

several times each day, via mass movements

what might distention of the rectal wall from mass movement stimulate?

the conscious desire to relax internal and external anal sphincters to defecate

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