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Carry blood away from the heart


Carry blood back to the heart


Connect smallest arteries to veins

Tunica Interna

Inner lining of arteries, coated with prostacyclin

Tunica Media

Middle, thick layer of arteries; responsible for vasomotion


Changes in the diameter of the blood vessel brought about by smooth muscle

Tunica Externa

Outermost layer of arteries

Vasa Vasorum

Small vessels that supply blood to at least the outer half of the larger vessels

Conducting Arteries

Largest arteries; Expand during systole, recoil during diastole which lessens fluctuations in blood pressure

Elastic, Large

Other names for Conducting Arteries

Distributing Arteries

Medium arteries; Distribute blood to specific organs

Muscular, Medium

Other names for Distributing Arteries

Resistance Arteries

Small arteries that control amount of blood to various organs


Smallest arteries


Short vessels that link arterioles to capillaries


Site where nutrients, wastes, and hormones pass between the blood and tissue fluid through the walls of the vessels (exchange vessels)

Continuous Capillaries

Most common capillaries; Tight junctions form a continuous tube with intercellular clefts

Fenestrated Capillaries

Capillaries that are riddled with holes called filtration pores

Sinusoids (Discontinuous Capillaries)

Capillaries with large fenestrations

Thoroughfare Channel

Metarteriole that continues through the capillary bed to the venule

Precapillary Sphincters

Control which capillary beds are well perfused

Capacitance Vessels

Other name for veins

Resistance Vessels

Other name for arteries

Postcapillary Venules

Smallest veins

Large Veins

Veins that feature a thin tunica media with moderate amount of smooth muscle

Heart - Arteries - Arterioles - Capillaries - Venules - Veins

6 Steps of the Simplest & Most Common Circulatory Route (in order)

Portal System

Circulatory route in which blood flows through two consecutive capillary networks before returning to the heart


Circulatory route where two blood vessels merge

Blood Flow

The amount of blood flowing through an organ, tissue, or blood vessel in a given time


The rate of blood flow per given volume or mass of tissue in a given time

Systolic Pressure

Peak arterial blood pressure

Diastolic Pressure

Minimum arterial blood pressure


Normal blood pressure

Pulse Pressure

Difference between systolic and diastolic pressure

Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)

Average of measurements at several intervals throughout the cardiac cycle

Peripheral Resistance

The opposition to flow that blood encounters in vessels away from the heart


Peripheral resistance increases with ____

Blood Flow

Peripheral resistance decreases with ____

Viscosity, Vessel Length, Vessel Radius

3 Things that Affect Peripheral Resistance


Increased vessel radius produces ___ flow

Capillary Walls

Location of exchanges made between blood and surrounding tissues

Capillary Exchange

Two way movement of fluid across capillary walls

Diffusion, Transcytosis, Filtration, Reabsorption

4 Mechanisms involved in Capillary Exchange

Blood Hydrostatic Pressure

Drives blood out of the capillary

Colloid Osmotic Pressure

Draws fluid into the capillary

Venous Return

The flow of blood back to the heart

Local, Neural, Hormonal

3 Types of Vasomotion Control

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