The first thing you should do when trying to understand a graph is
identify the axes
Arctic sea ice cover
doesn't affect sea level
Scientists think that the record low level of arctic sea ice in 2007 was due to
a & b
Reduction in arctic sea ice is expected to cause _________ in sea level, and the loss of the Greenland ice sheet is expected to cause _________ in sea level.
no change, an increase
The melting of the Greenland ice pack
is highly variable from year to year
Thinking of a glacier as a dynamic equilibrium, the input is ________ and the output is _________.
The TVA's Kingston TN toxic spill site was rated for safety by
A recent toxic spill occurred in Kingston TN at a power plant fueled by
In his song "Margaritaville", Jimmy Buffet describes a person who
decides to take responsibility for his situation
Eddie Abney suspected that he got Parkinson's disease symptoms from a commonly used chemical solvent at his workplace called ___________.
The idea that inheriting the earth is like winning the lottery is an important aspect of the concept of ___________.
The following are all reasons why it is useful to think of the benefits provided by nature as "natural capital" EXCEPT
it encourages us to compete to get the most that we can
The term "natural capital" expresses the idea that the earth, air, water and life on this planet can be thought of as a kind of "wealth" that we have inherited and that we can choose to well or poorly manage.
Which of the following factors MOST contributes to the global degradation of natural capital?
Important causes of environmental problems include all of the following except
including environmental costs in market pricing
Which of the following statements best captures the core of Garrett Hardin's notion of the "tragedy of the commons"?
rational self-interested individuals tend to ignore their negative effects on general welfare
Which of the following statements were made by a Christian leader or teacher?
all of the above
The idea of a "sustainable society" refers to a society where
needs of all peoples are met indefinitely
Shane Tedder, the new UK sustainability officer, says that the sustainability agenda "equally values ________ vitality, _________ justice, and ___________ integrity."
economic, social, ecological
The following discipline is irrelevant to the creation of a sustainable civilization.
none of the above
Which of the following is an example of a renewable resource?
Ecosystem services ________.
are economically valuable services provided by natural systems
Which of the following best describes the ideas behind the parable of "The Tragedy of the Commons?"
Motivated by self-interest, resources are overused by some individuals, which leaves less for others.
Based on our general understanding of resource use in wealthy versus poor nations, if the people of a poor country deplete renewable resources at a rate 10% faster than the Earth can replenish them, which percentage of overshoot might represent the United States?
What is a main lesson that can be learned from historians and anthropologists studying Easter Island?
Easter Island was once inhabited by a flourishing civilization that depleted the island's natural resources to the point that the island is now a barren landscape devoid of trees, most wildlife, and arable land.
_____ is a social movement dedicated to protecting the natural world from the undesirable changes brought about by human actions.
The scientific process and knowledge is based on ________.
a systematic process of learning about and testing our understanding of the world
In scientific research, the strongest form of evidence comes from ___________.
An experiment ________.
is an activity designed to test the validity of a hypothesis
Which of the following would be most likely to be believed by the scientific community?
an experiment that has been replicated 10 times with the same results
Which statement is an INCORRECT description of peer review?
Peer review is used rarely and only when researchers are at the beginning of their careers.
Paradigm shifts have occurred throughout history. Which of the following best describes an example of such a shift?
The world is NOT flat, but rather it is round and you will therefore not fall off the Earth if you were to sail toward the horizon.
Ethics can best be described as ____________.
A branch of philosophy that involves the study of good and bad, right, and wrong.
What scenario would best describe ecocentrism?
In order to determine if the shopping mall project would be possible, one would have to consider the overall impacts on people, the wetland ecosystem, and ways to preserve the connections that tie these systems.
A(n) ________ is best defined as one who considers the impacts on the whole ecosystem, both the living and non-living, when considering an action
John Muir, a great American environmentalist, felt that ________.
pristine wilderness should be preserved because "We need beauty as well as bread"
Credited for articulating the conservation ethic and for founding the U.S. Forest Service.
Environmental problems whose dimensions include differential exposure to risk from toxic wastes and air pollution or lack of access to the natural beauty of parks based on ethnicity or race are issues of ________.
Sustainable development ________.
means consuming resources without compromising future availability
The triple bottom line seeks to combine ___________.
environmental protection, economic well-being, and social equity
The Big Bang Theory refers to the currently prevailing ideas regarding the origin of ________.
The force that congealed the sun and planets to form the solar system and creates high internal pressures and temperatures is
Based on current views of solar system and planet formation, the crust of the earth is made up of distinctive relative abundances of elements because
volcanism redistributes interior material to the surface
In the scientific method, it is typical to test an hypothesis with __________.
Which statement is NOT true about the role of "falsification" in the scientific process
it generates new ideas
A fundamental assumption of the western scientific world view is that there is a reality which we can have knowledge about, that includes but is much more than that knowledge, which transcends it.
The integration of science is well illustrated by the fact that ___________ is a subset of __________ which is itself a subset of _____________.
biology, chemistry, physics
Eddie Abney couldn't get workers' compensation because
the scientists refused to sign the necessary form
Wendell Berry recommends a "way of ignorance" because
the limits of our knowledge should make us cautious in applying it
The ocean covers _________ of the earth's surface
Tectonic plates move because of flows in the
For several hundred million years at least, Kentucky has been
Subduction occurs at
a convergent plate boundary
The Hawaiian island chain was formed by a __________ plate and a _________ volcanic hot spot.
The Haiti earthquake was a result of a sudden _________ in stress between two _________ plates
The New Madrid fault zone, one of the most potentially dangerous in the country, is most likely to cause damage in
The following processes contribute to rock weathering except
all of the above contribute to weathering
Limestone is __________ rock and Marble is ___________ rock.
Which of the following phases of the rock cycle are listed in the CORRECT order
weathering, transport, deposition, burial
Rock formed by the burial of other rock types under high temperature and pressure is called
Tantalum from African coltan is used primarily for the manufacture of ________.
electronics: cell phones, computers, digital cameras
Which of these is true of how mining for tantalum has occurred in the Congo?
Profits from tantalum mining have helped fuel a war that has killed more than 5 million people.
The earth's mantle ________.
surrounds the core as a thick, elastic rock formation
Plate tectonic movement results from ________.
convective movements of rock in the underlying mantle
Sedimentary rock is formed ________.
as sedimented materials are pressed together and infiltrated by minerals
A naturally occurring solid chemical element with a distinct composition and a crystalline structure is a(n) ________.
The 2010 Haiti earthquake was so devastating because __________.
the buildings were not constructed to withstand earthquakes
The Pacific "ring of fire" is a volcanic area where ________.
there are many earthquakes and active plate boundaries
Volcanoes are formed ________.
in subduction zones or in rift valleys
Tsunamis are caused by ________.
displacement of sea water by volcanoes, earthquakes or landslides
Smelting of iron ore involves ________.
heating beyond iron's melting point and combining the material with carbon
Examples of valuable nonmetallic minerals extracted by mining are ________.
sand, gravel, phosphate
Subsurface mining is used extensively in the extraction of ________.
coal, phosphate, diamonds, gold
Which method of mining is considered to be the most dangerous and have fatal accidents commonly associated with it?
Acid drainage does not normally occur in areas before mines are built but tends to happen after the mine has been in operation for many years or after it has been abandoned. What specifically changes at mined sites that creates the conditions that encourage acid drainage?
Mining exposes unweathered rock surfaces that react with water and the atmosphere to generate acids.
Reclamation (restoration) of mined areas to their pre-mined condition has been difficult in the United States because __________.
the fast-growing grasses used in the early stages of reclamation to prevent erosion may outcompete native plant species that would be needed to help establish a diverse ecosystem
Efforts have been made in the last 10 years to change the General Mining Act of 1872. Supporters of the act argue that it should not be changed because __________.
mining companies take large financial risks in opening a mine so they should be entitled to the large financial rewards if the mine is successful
Which of these is a new experimental technique being used to reclaim mine water contaminated with acids and toxic metals?
bacteria in a bioreactor
Why do we have difficulty making accurate estimates of how long reserves of minerals will last?
Technological changes in the products we produce can change how much of which minerals we need.
Each year 1.2 billion mobile phones are sold.What percent of old mobile phones are currently recycled?
The average surface temperature of the earth depends primarily on energy from
Of the two main forms of energy, a stick of dynamite is an example of _________ energy and a hurricane an example of ________ energy.
The source of the tremendous heat of the sun is ___________.
Microwaves have _________ wavelengths and __________ energy than X rays.
The spectrum of light emitted by the sun is determined by its
Only a small fraction of the light energy striking the earth is in the visible portion of the spectrum.
Since the formation of the earth, the solar constant has
The surface temperature of the earth is a balance of inputs and outputs, and the output is entirely in the form of
One measurable difference between the energy inputs and the outputs regulating surface temperature of earth is (are) the
Earth's early temperature may have been _________ than today even though the sun was ____________ because of ____________ levels of greenhouse gases.
warmer, cooler, higher
During ice ages, average sea level is ________ than during inter-glacial periods.
Long term data sets (up to several hundred thousand years) show related trends such that when global temperature goes up, atmospheric carbon dioxide goes _____, methane goes _____ and sea level goes ______.
up, up, up
A thermostat in your house is an example of a __________ feedback, because when the house temperature __________, the furnace turns off.
Water vapor well illustrates the complexities of predicting global change, since it creates ______ feedback on temperature as a greenhouse gas, and a _________ feedback through its effect on cloud cover.
In the study of global warming, the "mystery of the missing sinks" refers to why _________ is increasing _________ than expected in the atmosphere.
carbon dioxide, slower
I claim the news story about farmers organizing to stop the climate bill in the Senate is a good example of the "tragedy of the commons", where the individual farmer trying to reduce fuel costs is like ______________, and the effects of fuel use on climate is like ____________________.
the herdsman adding cows, the degradation of the common pasture
The formation of Hadley cells in the atmosphere create zones of wet and dry climates on earth that are different at different
The following is NOT a cause of variation in temperature from place to place across the earth
all are causes of temperature variation
The cooling of air as it rises and the formation of clouds and rain is important in
a, b & c
The hydrological cycle is a good example of a general pattern in the biosphere where materials enter, flow through, and leave systems and, in the process, drive the cycling of energy within the system.
Why is carbon dioxide not considered a permanent gas in Earth's atmosphere?
Since the amount of carbon dioxide is changing because of human activity, it is not considered a permanent gas in Earth's atmosphere.
The reason that temperature increases with altitude through most of the stratosphere is ________.
heat is released by absorption of UV radiation by oxygen and ozone
The Coriolis effect contributes to ________.
global wind patterns
How are the citizens of the Maldives in trouble?
Climate change is a real issue that is affecting the Maldives and its people.
Which of the following statements about the sun's energy is true?
30% of the sun's energy is reflected off Earth and back into space.
Carbon dioxide is ________.
the main anthropogenic greenhouse gas produced in the United States
Growing rice results in the release of ________ into the atmosphere.
Milankovitch cycles ________.
are changes in Earth's rotation and orbit around the sun that may trigger climate variation
A substance that contributes to atmospheric cooling is _______.
How long have we been making direct measurements of carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere?
since hourly air samples were recorded from a monitoring station in Hawaii in 1958
Reports from the _____ are the most widely accepted information published on climate change.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Which of the following events is NOT a consequence of continued global warming?
The average surface temperature on Earth will continue to rise an estimated 10 °F over the next 20 years.
Why are over 1/6 of the world's people at risk for running out of drinking water?
Mountaintop snow and ice are melting because of global warming, and this is reducing water supply.
Why are warming temperatures causing a vicious cycle that leads to more warming?
Ice and snow reflect light and as they melt Earth absorbs more of the sun's rays.
The main reason that sea levels has risen recently is ______.
How is global warming most significantly affecting coral reefs and sea life?
Increased concentrations of carbon dioxide are being absorbed by the oceans. This acidifies the oceans.
Which of these would be an example of mitigation rather than adaptation for global climate change?
building more wind turbines to generate energy from renewable sources rather than fossil fuels
Over ________% of the fuel you pump into your automobile does something other than move your vehicle down the road.
According to Pacala and Sokolow, which strategy will be enough to stabilize carbon emissions?
promoting a combination of strategies would be more effective and allow us to enact changes more immediately
In the wake of the U.S. failure to ratify the Kyoto Protocol ________.
cities and states are setting their own programs for reducing greenhouse gas emissions
Compared to the closest planetary neighbors, the earth's current atmosphere has unexpectedly
high oxygen (O2) and high nitrogen
One gas in the atmosphere is much lower than expected compared to nearby planets, which is why it doesn't take much to increase it. That gas is
It is thought that one gas is very near the maximum that can stably occur. That gas is
Wildfires _______ at the highest frequency in the central most region of Australia because it is also the _______ part.
are not, driest
The biosphere, the zone in which life exists, is hardly more than ______ miles thick.
Ozone in the upper atmosphere selectively absorbs ____________ wavelengths in sunlight.
Something that can be accurately said about our current atmosphere is that
ozone forms in the upper atmosphere due to the effects of sunlight
Chemical reactions that require the input of energy to run are called ___________ and those that run spontaneously releasing energy are called ___________.
Much of the chemistry of life involves organic molecules which by definition contain _________ and are the product of reactions that are generally ___________.
The key event in photosynthesis that converts light energy to chemical energy, is when a photon raises the energy state of
Of the two forms of photosynthesis, probably ____________ appeared before ______________, resulting in a lag between the evolution of photosynthesis and increases in __________ in the atmosphere.
cyclic, non-cyclic, oxygen
As a chemical reaction, aerobic respiration is similar to _________ and the "reverse" of ___________.
The unusual composition of the atmosphere is consistent with the action of life because _________________ uses up _____________ and releases ____________.
photosynthesis, carbon dioxide, oxygen
In a _____ feedback loop, output that results from a system acts as input that moves the system in the other direction.
An example of a positive feedback loop is ________.
melting arctic snow exposing dark surfaces that heat up and cause further melting
The _____ encompasses all water in the biosphere.
The greatest source of both nitrogen and phosphorus entering Chesapeake Bay is ________.
Which of the following sequences is arranged in proper order from the smaller units to the largest units?
proton, element, molecule, organism
An element associated with most organic compounds is _______.
Which of the following macromolecules fuels almost all living cells?
________ are composed of amino acids.
Which of the following is an example of kinetic energy?
a rock falling from a cliff
According to the first law of thermodynamics, the total amount of energy in the universe _______.
Which of the following are the reactants (ingredients) needed for photosynthesis to occur?
carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight energy
Which of the following represent the reactants (ingredients) necessary for cellular respiration?
glucose and oxygen
In all ecosystems energy is eventually lost to the environment via ________.
heat resulting from respiration
In the flow of matter in ecosystems, the greatest flow of nutrients is between ________.
detritus and producers
Net primary productivity ________.
the energy used by plants to make biomass after respiration
Ecological modeling is most useful for studying ________.
large complex ecosystems with many interactions
How do plants contribute to the water cycle?
Aquifers are ________.
porous rock formations that store groundwater
The largest reservoir of carbon in the carbon cycle is in sedimentary rock that may take hundreds of millions of years to return to the living portion of the cycle. What is the second largest reservoir of carbon?
The greatest planetary pool of nitrogen is ________.