Brain Development (CH.7)

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Terms in this set (20)
cell differentiation3rd stage of development: process of cells adopting the features characteristic of the cell type for the particular brain region -neurons differ in their shape and chemical component depending on their location in the brainsynaptogenesis4th stage of development: refers to formation of the synapses between neurons during brain development -occurs throughout life as neurons are constantly forming new connectionsneuronal cell death5th stage of development: occurs throughout nervous system during development -occurs during apoptosissynaptic rearrangement6th stage of development: many early synapses are retracted and others are added during this stagedown syndrometrisomy 21- a genetic condition caused by the presence of an extra copy of chromosome 21 -results in impairment of cognitive ability, physical growth, and facial abnormalities -it demonstrates that genes/DNA are not passed on faithfullymendelian inheritancea set of tenets relating to fundamental principles of hereditary transmission of characteristics (genes) from parent organismsfragile x syndromesex-linked chromosomal abnormality characterized by trinucleotide (>200) repeats on the x chromosome -failure of expression of FMR1 gene, leading to neural defects (over-abundance of spine synapses in cortex) -results in mild-severe cognitive impairmentsphenylketonuria (PKU)metabolic genetic disorder resulting from inability to metabolize the amino acid phenylanine, leading to buildup phenylketones, resulting in neural damage and moderate-severe intellectual disabilityepigeneticsthe study of changes in phenotype/gene expression NOT caused by actual changes in DNA sequencewhat are the 2 ways epigenetics occurs?1. DNA methylation (chemical modification of parts of the genome) 2. Histone modification (alteration of histone proteins)