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HHD ch. 10-11
Terms in this set (55)
The best possible state of an individual's health for their age.
'An indication of how long a person can expect to live. It is the number of years of life remaining to a person at a particular age if death rates do not change.' (AIHW, 2008
national health priority areas
Condition areas issued by the government of which are identified as a health risk, as their account for just less than 80% of Australia's burden of injury and disease.
A - asthma
A - arthritis and musculoskeletal conditions
C - cancer control
C - cardiovascular health
D - diabetes mellitus
D - dementia
I - injury preventing and control
M - mental health
O - obesity
self-assessed health status
An individual's rating of their overall health is used as an indicator of their health status.
individuals assess their health against 5 grades, from excellent to poor.
85% of Australian adults rated their health as good or better, although studies show that the figures decline with older age.
An umbrella term characterised by the impairment of brain functions, including memory, personality, language and cognitive skills. Onset is gradual, progressive and irreversible.
- major health concern in older Australians- responsible for 4% of total burden of disease in 2011.
the most common form arthritis, affecting almost 1.6 million people of which affects the joints. prevalence increases with age and being overweight.
- symptoms include inflammation of the joints, most common being the hand
- affects over 400 thousand people, over half female
factors relating to the body
- body weight
- blood pressure
- blood cholesterol
being overweight increases the chance of low self- esteem, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke
action/ choices made by individuals
- food intake
- alcohol and drug use
- sexual practices
- physical activity
- everyone should do 30 mins a day
- prevents diseases such as heart conditions, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes
- maintains healthy body weight
- also develops social health- interaction with others in community, mental health - belonging and achievement
- good nutrition prevents type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, obesity, stroke, heart disease
- maintains healthy body weight
- improves cholesterol levels
- controls blood glucose levels
physical determinants (environment)
the surroundings of an individual
- access to healthcare
- neighbourhood safety
- housing environment
- workplace safety
access to healthcare
- low socioeconomic status and unemployment can be 2 limitations to access
- location of resources
- morbidity issues
- language/ culture barrier
- knowledge of available services
- value and attitude towards health
adults feeling safe and secure within their neighbourhood environment.
- crime prevention
- antisocial behaviours
- gender differences
- environmental factors
- leads to anxiety and fear
social environment determinants
aspects of society
- level of education
- work/life balance
- family stress and trauma
- employment status
- access to healthcare
- social support
Various forms of communication, including print sources such as newspapers and magazines, television, radio, film and advertising, in addition to a range of online media
The physical and emotional comfort and support an individual receives from a network of people within their family or community.
Refers to ill-health in an individual and the levels of ill-health in a population or group.' (AIHW, 2008)
The number of deaths caused by a particular disease, illness or other environmental factor.
'An individual's or population's overall level of health, taking into account various factors such as life expectancy, amount of disability and levels of disease risk factors.' (AIHW, 2008)
includes all diseases relating to the conditions of the heart and blood vessels
- heart failure
- heart disease
diabetes (type 2)
The most common form of diabetes and marked by reduced or less effective insulin.
individual human development
Describes the gradual changes in an individual's physical, social, emotional and intellectual states and abilities
'A complete state of physical, social and mental wellbeing, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.' (WHO, 1946)
national initiative targeted about the promotion and awareness of healthy lifestyles and choices. This seeks to prevent and act upon obesity, put into two phases: 1- why?, and 2- How? This enables people to be aware of their choices and how to make the changes.
leading cause of mortality
leading cause of death: Coronary heart disease.
2nd for males: lung cancer
2nd for females: stroke
Other causes include cancer (lung, breast and colorectal) and stroke.
dementia and Alzheimer's disease is a more prominent cause of death in old age.
high blood pressure (hypertension)
linked to high intake of salt
- increases chance of cardiovascular disease, stroke
- 2 greatest burden of disease
- prevention factors: reducing salt intake, alcohol consumption, physical activity increase
the level of fat (lipid) that is required for the body to function
- too much is bad
risk factors: inactivity, poor nutrition
- increases chance for coronary heart disease
- transition from youth to adulthood- new responsibilities :
-driving, alcohol, education
- completion of growth
- moving out of home, starting a family
- peak in career
- retirement from the workforce
- empty nesting: children leaving home
- deterioration in sensory organs, muscle strength, signs of aging
- retirement from workforce
- role as a grandparent
- involvement in community
- chance of dementia, other health conditions
- loss of a loved one
how effective and efficient our body and its systems can function.
state of wellbeing on which the individual realises their own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully and is able to make a contribution to their community.
being able to cooperate and interact with others and participate within the community in both an independent and cooperative way.
the cessation of menstruation. This signifies a significant decline in the production of hormones, including reduced oestrogen levels, decreased ability to store calcium and a change of distribution on the body, due to slowed down metabolic rate.
In Australia the lifespan stage from age 18 years onwards and a time of continuing physical, social, emotional and intellectual change.
A person's genetic make-up will influence their health and development. The most obvious direct impact of genetics is the example of genetic diseases such as haemophilia, cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy and Huntington's disease. These conditions result only from a person's genetic make-up and cannot be prevented by the affected individual
any condition that causes disruption to the blood supply to the brain. Disorders that affect the blood vessels that supply the brain which may result in a stroke.
coronary heart disease (CVD)
caused by the gradual build up of plaque on the inner wall of the arteries
- also known as ischaemic heart disease
when a blood vessel to the heart is completely blocked, thus preventing blood flow and causes damage to the heart and its functions
when a blood vessel to the brain bleeds or becomes blocked, which then causes that part of the brain to die as it is deprived of blood
type 2 diabetes
caused by a decrease in insulin production or the body's inability to use insulin properly and is associated with being overweight or obese.
- this form of diabetes is the most common form of diabetes, presenting mostly in adults aged 45 years and older, and is about 85% to 90% of all diabetes cases
A range of diseases categorised by uncontrolled and abnormal cell growth. Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body, causing further damage.
Refers to the presence of excess fat tissue in the body according to the body mass index; that is, more than 30% body fat.
a range of disorders that affect how an individual behaves, thinks, and feels about themselves in the world around them.
this includes a range of symptoms and behaviours for each that vary in severity of which affect the functioning of the individual.
the Australian government's nationally funded health scheme that subsides the cost of medical services, so all Australians have access to free or low cost medical care.
- e.g. eye tests (optometrists) and diagnostic tests (x-ray)
leading cause of child mortality
administered by the government health insurance commission and is funded by taxpayers from general revenue raised from the 1.5% Medicare levy.
The weight range defined by having a body mass index that is over 25.
burden of disease
A measure of the impact of diseases and injuries; specifically, it measures the gap between current health status and an ideal situation where everyone lives to an old age free of disease and disability.
- is measured in a unit called the Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY).
Refers to the way individuals function in the community, measured in terms of impairments and activity limitations for everyday activities
A measure of the burden of disease: one DALY equals 1 year of healthy life lost due to premature death and time lived with illness, disease or injury.
A long-term general movement or change in frequency, usually either upwards or downwards, i.e. an upward trend in a disease or unhealthy behaviour means that it is becoming more frequent
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