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VETS1032 L4.11 Small Molecules, Energy & Biosynthesis 4
Terms in this set (30)
NADH stands for _________________ ____________ ________________ (reduced form).
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (we know it's reduced because it has a hydrogen. It is therefore activated, and carrying energy in this form)
NADPH stands for _______________ ____________ _______________ __________________ (reduced form).
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (we know it's reduced because it has a hydrogen. It is therefore activated, and carrying energy in this form)
The only difference between NADH and NADPH is that ____________ has just one additional _________________.
Following the hydrogen on NADH and NADPH allows us to indirectly follow the high energy ___________. Therefore, when NADH -> __________, we know that energy has been exchanged.
The extra phosphate possessed by NADPH has little effect on energy transfer, but does affect the ________ of the molecule, and so it will bind to different ___________ compared to NADH.
Typically, NADPH has roles in ____________ reactions (________________).
Typically, NADH has roles in _______________ reactions to generate ATP during ____________ reactions.
The fact that NADH and NADPH have slightly different ________, interact with different __________ and are involved in different reaction types (NADH, _____bolism; NADPH, _____bolism) these two processes can be regulated independently.
shapes, enzymes, cata, ana
Another important activated carrier molecule is _______________ ______. This molecule transfers energy within chemical bonds by exchanging an acetyl group.
Another important activated carrier molecule is acetyl CoA. This molecule transfers energy within chemical ________ by exchanging an __________ __________.
bonds, acetyl group
The activated carrier molecule acetyl CoA is important in the oxidation of _________ ________ and alcohols, ______ acid metabolism and ________________ metabolism.
amino acids, fatty, carbohydrate
Activated carrier molecules are involved in:
- Oxidation of food molecules (carrier molecules __________)
- ___________ (carrier molecules oxidised)
- ___________ transport across membranes (carrier molecules __________)
- __________ cell function
reduced, biosynthesis, oxidised, nerve
The formation of organic compounds by living organisms.
Biosynthesis is required for:
1. Interconversion between different small molecules (conversion of one _________ _______ to another).
2. Synthesis of macromolecules from small molecules (__________________)
3. Synthesis of macromolecules of greater ______________ or interconversion from other macromolecules.
amino acid, polymerisation, complexity
Biosynthesis is required for:
1. _________________ between different small molecules (conversion of one amino acid to another).
2. Synthesis of ___________________ from ________ molecules (polymerisation)
3. Synthesis of ___________________ of greater complexity or ____________________ from other macromolecules
interconversion, macromolecules, smaller, macromolecules, interconversion
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