Factors Affecting Performance
Terms in this set (71)
- Anaerobic (ATP/PC) system
- Lactic acid system
- Aerobic system
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
is a high energy compound that stores and transfers energy to body cells, allowing them to perform their specialised functions, such as muscle contraction.
is the process of restoring ATP to its former state.
Creatine Phosphate (CP)
is an energy-rich compound that serves as an alternative energy source for muscular contraction.
is a by-product of the incomplete breakdown of carbohydrate in the absence of oxygen.
is the storage form of glucose in the muscles and is used for fuel when blood glucose levels in the blood decline.
means that the reaction occurs in the absence of oxygen.
is the point at which the lactic acid accumulates rapidly in the blood.
Types of training and Training methods
- Aerobic; continuous, Fartlek, aerobic interval, circuit
- Anaerobic; anaerobic interval
- Flexibility; static, dynamic, ballistic, PNF
- Strength; free/fixed weights, elastic, hydraulic
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) stretching
is a progressive cycle incorporating a static stretch, and isometric contraction and a period of relaxation in the lengthened position. it is aimed at stretching and strengthening muscle in a safe movement.
Principles of training
- Progressive Overload
- Training thresholds
- Warm up and Cool Down
Physiological adaptations in response to training
- Resting heart rate
- Stroke volume
- Cardiac output
- Oxygen uptake
- Lung capacity
- haemoglobin level
- Muscle hypertrophy
- Effect on fast/slow twitch muscle fibres
occurs when an individuals performance is driven by previous reinforcing behaviours.
is characterised by an improvement in performance out of fear of the consequences of not performing to expectations.
is the motivation that comes from within the individual.
Extrinsic or External motivation
occurs when the individual's internal state is modified by sources originating from outside the person.
is predominantly a psychological process characterised by fear or anticipation of confronting a situation perceived to be potentially threatening.
refers to the general level of stress that is a characteristic of an individual.
is characterised by a state of heightened emotions that develop in response to fear or danger.
is the non-specific response of the body to a demand placed on it.
is a specific level of anxiety and can be experienced prior to and during a performance.
Inverted U hypothesis
suggests that performance improves with increasing arousal to a point beyond which performance will deteriorate.
is the ability to link movement and awareness to the extent that the individual can focus on doing, rather than on thinking about doing.
is the technique of picturing the performance or skill before executing it
are a series o techniques that seek to control the body's response to stress.
are targets that we direct our efforts towards. They can relate to either performance or behaviour.
is the technique of loading the muscles with glycogen in preparation for a high-intensity endurance activity for more than 90 minutes.
involves supplyng sufficient water to the bodys' cells
emphasises immediate refuelling and rehydration that continues until a pre-event state is obtained.
are inorganic compounds that are essential to maintaining bodily functions
are inorganic substances found in the body that are necessary for it to function adequately.
- Physiological strategies; cool down, hydration
- Neural strategies; hydrotherapy, massage
- Tissue damage strategies; cryotherapy
- Psychological strategies; relaxation
Psychological strategies to enhance motivation and manage anxiety
- Concentration and attention skills (focusing)
- Mental rehearsal/visualisation/imagery
- Relaxation techniques
- Goal setting
refers to mental processing of information, thinking and understanding.
means connecting or linking ideas
means being in full control of actions so they become automatic.
refers to an individual's characteristics way of behaving.
refers to genetic characteristics inherited from our parents.
is a firm belief in one's own ability
is the ease with which an individual is able to perform a movement or routine.
occur in an environment that is unpredictable and frequently changing.
occur in an environment that is stable and predictable.
Gross motor skills
require the use of large muscle groups for excution.
Fine motor skills
require the use of only small muscle groups to perform the movement.
have a distinctive beginning and end that can be identified.
involve a sequence of smaller movements that are assembled to make a total skill
have no distinct beginning or end
are movements for which the performer determines the timing and speed of execution.
are movements for which an external source controls the timing.
refers to the way we play, where we should be at a particular time and what to do.
utilising ways of gaining an advantage over an opponent.
involves a continuous practice session, with the rest intervals being shorter than the practice intervals.
involves a broken practice session, with the intervals of rest or alternative activities being longer than the practice intervals.
is applied when a skill is practiced in its entirety.
is applied when a skill is broken into smaller components and each discrete sub-skill (subroutine) is practiced separately.
occurs as a normal consequence of performing a skill. It embodies feelings, together with sensory information such as seeing the ball and hearing the sound of a ball hitting the bat.
is all feedback other than that which occurs internally. it includes various forms of external information, such as suggestions from the coach, video replays, judges scores and race results.
is received during the performance of a skill.
is received after the skill has been executed.
Knowledge of results
is the information about the outcome of a movement.
Knowledge of performance
is the information about the pattern of a movement during execution.
refers to the system of sensitivity that exists in the muscles and their attachments.
ability of skilled performers to predict what may happen in specific situations.
ability to be able to perform the desired movement repeatedly.
is a procedure or practical methods applied to a particular task.
Subjective measures of performance
refers to a judgement of performance quality based on feelings, impressions or opinions rather than a measurement system.
Objective measures of performance
is the extent to which a measure is independent of the observer.
is the honesty of a test - that is, the degree to which it measures what is supposed to measure.
refers to the degree of consistency of a test - that is, the ability of the test and tester to produce the same results on successive occasions.
are the preconceived ideas or expectations that and individual brings to judge a performance.
are established by a sports organisation or body and form a basis of assessment for competitions in that sport or activity.
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