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Research Methods in Psychology PRACTICE EXAM (found this elsewhere may be of some use)
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People are given a personality test and then separated into those who tend to be introverted and those who tend to be extroverted. In this study the independent variable is a _______ variable.
A) subject
B) manipulated
C) task
D) controlled
A) subject
A researcher manipulates a defendant's appearance (attractive, average, or unattractive) and gender (male or female) to study how these variables affect judgments of criminal behavior. How many interactions are possible in this design?
1`
In a taste test comparing popcorn brands A, B, C, and D, the experimenter decides to use a Latin square for counterbalancing. Assuming that ten participants will be tested in each of the sequences used, how many people will be needed to complete the study?
A) 40
B) 10
C) 80
D) 4
A) 40
In a memory study using a 2x2 factorial, one of the factors is the presentation rate of the words, the two levels being 2 and 4 seconds per item. The researcher finds that recall is 98% accurate at 2 seconds per item and 99% accurate at 4 seconds per item (not a statistically significant difference). The most reasonable conclusion is that
A) a ceiling effect has occurred
B) an interaction has occurred
C) presentation rate has no significant effect on memory
D) there is a main effect for presentation rate
A) a ceiling effect has occured
What do all experiments have in common?
A) there are at least two different ways in which participants are treated
B) at least one independent variable will be an instructional variable
C) there must be at least two dependent measures
D) there must be a control group
A) there are at least two different ways in which participants are treated
In a study on the effects of caffeine on reaction time, one group of participants ingests two cups of coffee before being tested. A second group takes four cups, and a third group takes eight cups. Before the study, participants are asked about the average number of cups they drink per day and that information is used when assigning participants to groups. What is the design?
A) multilevel, matched groups
B) independent groups, single factor
C) repeated measures, multilevel
D) multilevel, nonequivalent groups
A) multilevel, matched groups
A t test for dependent samples is used to compare experimental conditions in which of the following designs?
A) single-factor, independent groups design
B) single-factor, matched groups design
C) single-factor, nonequivalent groups design
D) both alternatives a. and c.
B) single-factor, matched groups design
Another term for "uncontrolled extraneous variable" is
A) confounding variable
B) independent variable
C) dependent variable
D) subject variable
A) confounding variable
After averaging 20 points per game for her college basketball team over the first 15 games, Amanda scores 37 points one night. Because of _______, she will almost certainly score _______ points in the next game.
A) a fatigue effect; fewer
B) a history effect; more
C) regression to the mean; more
D) regression to the mean; fewer
D) regression to the mean; fewer
In a factorial design, a main effect is the effect of the _____ variable by itself.
A) independent
B) dependent
C) correlated
D) situational
A) independent
Creating equivalent groups is a design problem for
A) between-subjects designs
B) within-subjects designs
C) both alternatives a. and b.
D) none of the above
A) between-subjects designs
Conclusions about cause and effect cannot be drawn in studies involving
A) manipulated variables
B) task variables
C) situational variables
D) subject
D) subject
Social psychologists might be concerned that conformity experiments using participants from individualist cultures might not be relevant for understanding behavior in collectivist cultures. This concern is about _______ validity.
A) internal
B) external
C) construct
D) statistical conclusion
B) external
If a 1-factor ANOVA has been completed in a study with one independent variable, you can be sure that
A) multiple t tests have already been completed first
B) the design involves repeated measures
C) post hoc testing will occur if the ANOVA is significant
D) the independent variable has at least five levels
C) post hoc testing will occur if the ANOVA is significant
A researcher may design an experiment with more than two levels of the independent variable because
A) it may be difficult to provide information about the exact relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable.
B) with only two levels of the independent variable, a curvilinear relationship cannot be detected.
C) researchers are often interested in comparing more than two groups.
D) All of the other choices
D) all of the other choices
If counterbalancing is used in a single-factor study, you can be sure that
A) repeated measures are involved
B) some type of confound exists
C) it is a multilevel design, not a two-level design
D) matching is also involved
A) repeated measures are involed
A factorial design involves
A) manipulating two or more independent variables.
B) an inability to specify the overall effect of an independent variable.
C) having multiple dependent measures.
D) All of the other choices
A) manipulating two or more IVs
The simplest way to evaluate threats to internal validity due to history, maturation, and regression is to
A) include a control group
B) include a pretest as well as a postest
C) use only subject variables
D) use a subject pool
A) include a control group
An investigator wanted to see whether packaging information affects the way teenagers rate the effectiveness of soap. The same soap was put in three packages: (a) a pink wrapper that says "For Keeping Your Skin Baby Soft"; (b) a red wrapper that says "For Eliminating Acne"; and (c) a white wrapper that says nothing. Each teenager was asked to rub his or her face with dirt and wash with soap A; the same procedure was followed for soaps B and then C. The time it took to get the face clean was recorded each time. What is the intended independent variable?
packaging information
Five golfers each hit 50 brand A golf balls, and then 50 brand B golf balls. On average, the brand B balls go significantly farther. Which of the following is true?
A) a warm-up effect
B) a wind change
C) brand B is better
D) any of the above are possible explanations
D) any of the above are possible
If a line graph has been used to portray the results of a single-factor study, you can be sure that
A) the dependent variable is a discrete variable
B) it is a multilevel design, not a two-level design
C) there is a continuous variable on the X-axis
D) a nonlinear effect will occur
C) there is a continuous variable on the X axis
Compared to a longitudinal study, a cross-sectional study
A) takes longer to complete
B) has to deal with potential cohort effects
C) has attrition as its major difficulty
D) has to be concerned about counterbalancing properly
B) has to deal with potential cohort effects
In a study in which the procedures were assumed to create anxiety, some participants were interrupted in the middle of the procedure and their blood pressure was checked. This is an example of
A) a Hawthorne effect
B) a manipulation check
C) a check on experimenter bias
D) a placebo control
B) a manipulation check
How might experimenter bias be communicated to subjects in animal research?
A) experimenters are more likely to cheat (animals can't report fraud)
B) animals in different groups might be handled differently by experimenters
C) the subjects will experience different degrees of evaluation apprehension
D) none of the above — experimenter bias only occurs in research with human subjects
B) animals in different groups might be handles differently by experimenters
In a factorial study, what is a main effect?
A) it refers to any statistically significant finding in the study
B) it refers to any statistically significant difference between the levels of a single independent variable
C) it occurs when the effect of one variable depends on the level of the other variable
D) it is any result that is significant at the .01 rather than the .05 level
B) it refers to any statistically significant difference between the levels of a single IV
For the designs in this chapter, post hoc testing occurs when
A) a 1-factor ANOVA yields a significant effect
B) a 1-factor ANOVA has failed to yield a significant effect
C) multiple t tests have been completed, and at least one has rejected the null hypothesis
D) multiple t tests have been completed, but none have rejected the null hypothesis
A) a 1-factor ANOVA yields a significant effect
You can be sure that a _______ variable is being used if the research hypothesizes sex differences in some task.
subject
A mixed factorial design has
A) at least one between-subjects factor and at least one within-subjects factor
B) at least one manipulated factor and at least one subject variable
C) both males and females serving as subjects
D) both two-level and multilevel factors operating
A) at least one BS factor and at least one WS factor
A researcher finds that for female applicants, the likelihood of being hired for a job increases as their work experience increases. However, for male applicants, the likelihood of being hired decreases as their work experience increases. This finding would suggest
A) a main effect of gender.
B) a main effect of work experience.
C) an interaction between gender and work experience.
D) gender and work experience have no effect on likelihood of being hired for a job.
C) an interaction between gender and work experience
A researcher examines the physical attractiveness of a driver involved in an automobile accident (unattractive, average, or attractive) and the severity of damage caused ($500, $1500, or $2500) on judgments of responsibility assigned to the driver. Which of the following represents the design?
between subjects design; 3*3
Experimenter expectancy or bias effects can be reduced by
A) using "blind" experimenters.
B) running participants in all groups simultaneously.
C) using automated procedures.
D) All of the other choices
D) all other choices
A researcher wants to know if children prefer cereal that has colors in it. Preschoolers compare plain-colored Wheatios with multicolored Rice Chrunchios. The children preferred the latter. What can be concluded?
A) children prefer colored cereal
B) whether the cereal is composed of wheat or rice is the independent variable
C) cereal type is confounded with cereal color
D) cereal color is the dependent variable
C) cereal type is confounded with cereal color
A within-subjects design
A) is also known as a repeated-measures design
B) must deal with the problem of equivalent groups
C) includes a minimum of two independent variables
D) must include a subject variable
A) is also known as repeated-measures design
Sometimes performance differences could be attributed to an independent variable or to some basic difference in the composition of the two groups involved. When this occurs, there is said to be a threat due to
A) regression
B) maturation
C) attrition
D) selection
D) selection
In a factorial study, a main effect
A) refers to any F ratio in the ANOVA that is significant
B) occurs when differences are found for the different levels of an independent variable
C) occurs when the effect of one independent variable depends on the level of another independent variable
D) is determined by calculating row means (as opposed to column means)
B) occurs when differences are found for the different levels of an IV
Which of the independent variables would lead you to use a bar rather than a line graph?
A) political affiliation
B) dosage level of a drug
C) age
D) delay time in giving reinforcement
A) political affiliation
An interaction occurs whenever
A) the manipulation check indicates a manipulation failure.
B) the effect of one independent variable changes across levels of a second independent variable.
C) both independent variables have an effect.
D) the dependent variable is effectively manipulated in a factorial design.
B) the effect of one IV changes across levels of a second IV
________ validity is concerned with the extent to which results generalize beyond the particular experiment being conducted.
External
The major threat to internal validity that occurs in studies that last for a significant period of time (e.g., five years) is
A) regression
B) maturation
C) attrition
D) selection
C) attrition
If a t test for dependent samples has been completed in a single factor study, you can be sure that
A) the independent variable has more than two levels
B) the independent variable is a subject variable
C) the independent variable only has two levels
D) a Type I error is more likely than a Type II error
C) the IV only has two levels
A t test for independent samples is used to compare experimental conditions in which of the following designs?
A) single-factor, independent groups design
B) single-factor, matched groups design
C) single-factor, nonequivalent groups design
D) both alternatives a. and c.
D) both a and c
In a between-subjects design, the differences between conditions could be due to all of the following except
A) some confounding factor
B) random error
C) a carry-over effect
D) the effect of the independent variable
C) a carry-over effect
A manipulation check is used to determine whether
A) the results were statistically significant.
B) the independent variable had the intended effect.
C) the independent variable was ethical.
D) All of the other choices
B) the IV had the intended effect
Demand characteristics, and therefore subject bias, can be reduced by using
A) only good subjects
B) only those participants incapable of figuring out the hypothesis
C) deception
D) within-subjects rather than between-subjects designs
C) deception
In a taste test, subjects try Coke, then Pepsi, then RC Cola, then RC Cola, then Pepsi, and finally, Coke. What method of counterbalancing is being used here?
A) block randomization
B) reverse counterbalancing
C) complete counterbalancing
D) asymmetrical transfer
B) reverse counterbalancin
A researcher simultaneously investigated learning style and teaching style. Students were identified as either visual/concrete learners or verbal/abstract learners, on the basis of a learning style survey. For each type of student, half were taught a statistics lesson using a computer program that included a lot of graphics, while the other half used a computer program with fewer graphics and more verbal material. After working through the program, all students were given a test on statistics.a) What design type best describes this study?How would you describe the design of this study?b) Which of the following is required for this study design: counterbalancing and random assignment? Why?c) Learning style is what type of variable?d) With 25 students tested per cell of this design, how many students will be needed in all?
a) a 2x2 P x E factorial b) counterbalancing is not required, but random assignment is because it is a between-subjects design c) manipulated independent variable because the gender of the children were of pictures not actual participants d) 100
A researcher studied the influence of crowding (low, medium, and high crowding) on reading comprehension between two types of third graders. Half the children randomly assigned to each crowding condition were classified as "good" and half "poor" on an assessment of verbal fluency. In the study, each child read a 750-word passage and was tested on it later.a) This is a _____ x _____ design.b) Crowding is a _________ variable, whereas type of student is a ___________ variable.c) There are a total of how many condition in this study? What are they?d) Twenty poor students are tested in the low crowding condition. To keep the same N in all the cells, how many children will participate in the experiment?
a) 3*2 design
b) Independent Variable, Subject Variablec) 6 conditions; Low crowding, good student; Low crowding, bad student; Medium crowding, good student; Medium crowding, bad student; High crowding, good student; high crowding, bad student d) 120 students
A researcher investigated the effect of a child's attractiveness and gender on judgments of personality and intelligence. Male teachers were shown photos of children to obtain their "first impressions" of children. Each teacher was shown four photos (the order was randomized for each teacher): an attractive boy, an unattractive boy, an attractive girl, and an unattractive girl. The teachers rated the apparent friendliness of the child and also estimated the child's intelligence.a) What type of design is this (be as specific as possible)?b) How many dependent variable are there in this study?c) The gender of the children in the photos is a ____________ variable.d) With 30 teachers tested per cell of this design, how many teachers participated in the experiment?
a) a 2x2 repeated-measures factorial ANOVA
b) two
c) manipulated variable
d) 30 because its a fully within subjects design
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