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Earth science test
Terms in this set (50)
The theory that continents are continually moving and have changed positions significantly.
A supercontinent that existed It assembled from earlier continental units approximately 335 million years ago, and it began to break apart about 175 million years ago.
who developed the theory of continental drift
evidence of continental drift
The continents fit together, Fossil correlation, rock and mountain correlation, bituminous coal.
structure of the earth
the crust, the mantle, the outer core and the inner core.
crust is broken into tectonic plates. They float on top of the semi liquid magma. Sometimes they crash into eachother, causing one plate to slide under the other, this causes the plate ontop to buckle pushing land upwards.
The convection currents carry thermal energy. Convection currents in magma causes tectonic plates to move. The magma cools as it reaches the earths core.
outer layer of the earth. It is made up of rocks and minerals. The crust is thin and brittle and 70% of it is covered by oceans, the crust is thickest under continents and thinnest under ocens.
below the mantle. Is about 2800km thick, temps range from 500C - 3000C near the bottom. The bottom of the mantle is solid although the top rock moves being the source of volcanoes and earthquakes.
made of metals, it is very hot and liquid with temps reaching 4000C-6000C, the heat comes from nuclear reactions and some of the heat is left over from when the earth was formed.
The outer core
gives Earths its north and south poles and magnetic field.
types of plates
oceanic and continental
the crust and part of the upper mantle
the plastic layer below the lithosphere
the earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into sections called plates. plates move around on top of the mantle.
Plates at our planet's surface move because of the intense heat in the Earth's core that causes molten rock in the mantle layer to move.
a line on a rock surface or the ground that traces a geological fault.
A collision zone occurs when tectonic plates meeting at a convergent boundary both bearing continental lithosphere.
A subduction zone is a region of the Earth's crust where tectonic plates meet. The places where these plates meet are called plate boundaries.
A Continental rift is the belt or zone of the continental lithosphere where the extensional deformation (rifting) is occurring.
Seafloor spreading is a process that occurs at mid-ocean ridges, where new oceanic crust is formed through volcanic activity and then gradually moves away from the ridge.
who discovered seafloor spreading?
Where do earthquakes occur?
Earthquakes occur all the time all over the world, both along plate edges and along faults. Most earthquakes occur along the edge of the oceanic and continental plates.
What causes tsunamis?
Tsunamis can occur from an earthquake, an underwater landslide, a volcanic eruption or a large meteorite strike.
Hot spots are places within the mantle where rocks melt to generate magma. The presence of a hot spot is inferred by anomalous volcanism
the water cycle
Of the many processes involved in the water cycle, the most important are evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and runoff.
Any surface of water that changesfrom a liquid to a gas then goes into the air.
where moisture is carried through plants to form vapor and is released to the atmosphere.
water which collects as droplets on a cold surface and goes into air to create clouds.
water droplets fall to the earth as rain, hail, snow etc.
Rainfall that is not absorbed by soil and travels to the ocean.
Carbon on earth
Carbon is found in the atmosphere, in the soil, and it's in rocks, and the ocean.
water falls on land and is absorbed through soil
the carbon cycle
The Carbon Cycle involves : photosynthesis, respiration, combustion and decomposition.
plants that can get their energy from the sun
the action of breathing
the process of burning something.
the state or process of rotting.
carbon stored on earth
Living organisms, deep ocean sinks, fossil fuels.
deep ocean sink
When ocean water in these areas gets very cold, sea ice forms. The surrounding seawater gets saltier, increases in density and sinks.
The role of decomposers
They break down the remains of dead plants and animals and, in doing so, release carbon dioxide through respiration.
The greenhouse effect
The greenhouse effect is a natural process that warms the Earth's surface. When the Sun's energy reaches the Earth's atmosphere, some of it is reflected back to space and the rest is absorbed and re-radiated by greenhouse gases.
Greenhouse gases include water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone and some artificial chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons
enhanced greenhouse effect
is the impact on the climate from the additional heat retained due to the increased amounts of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases that humans have released into the earth's atmosphere.
impacts of climate change
- coral bleaching of the great barrier reef
- floods, booshfires and stroms
- seawater levels rising
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