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Unit 1 Psychology - Role of the Brain in Mental Processes and Behaviour
Terms in this set (58)
Thoughts and feelings that are internal, personal and cannot be directly observed
Brain vs. Heart debate
A debate on whether the brain or our heart were the source of all of our thoughts, feelings and behaviours
The brain is where our mental processes occur. This is the widely known hypothesis now.
The heart is where our mental processes occur. This is what Ancient Egyptions believed
A central problem of modern philosophy that originates with Descartes. It concerns how the mind and the body are related; especially, how they are able to causally interact as they would seem to do in perception and voluntary action. (17th Century)
The theory that the skull's surface features and a pesron's personality and behavioural characteristics (faculties) are related (18th Century)
Disabling, destroying or removing brain tissue (This was done in the 19th Century)
Electrical Stimulation of hte Brain
Use of electrical impulses into the brain to see if a specific area initates a response (19th Century)
Refers to a set of techniques that allows researchers to make detailed maps of the human brain and assign functions to particular regions in the brain.
Computerised Tomography (CT Scan)
A computer enhanced X-ray of a slice (cross-section) of the brain created from X-rays taken from different angles. Provides information about STRUCTURE only.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Harmless radio frequencies are used to vibrate atoms in the neurons of the brain which can show brain structure.
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Measures subtle changes in blood-oxygen levels in the functioning brain.
Positron Emission Tomography
Prior to the scan being taken, the person is given a sugar-like substance that contains a harmless radioactive element. When this substance enters the bloodstream it travels to the brain. As particular parts of the brain are activated, the substance emits radiation which is detected the scanner.
A conglomeration of billions of cells specifically designed to provide a communication network within the human body.
Central Nervous System
Consists of the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
A division of the nervous system consisting of all nerves that are not part of the brain or spinal cord.
Autonomic Nervous System
A subdivision of the peripheral nervous system. Controls involuntary activity of muscles and internal organs and glands.
Somatic Nervous System
A subdivision of the peripheral nervous system. Enables voluntary actions to be undertaken due to its control of skeletal muscles
Sympathetic Nervous System
The division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
The division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
Nerves that run up and down the length of the back and transmit most messages between the body and brain
Branchlike parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information.
A nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system.
The cell body which contains the nucleus and sends the message from the dendrite to the axon
A threadlike extension of a neuron that carries nerve impulses away from the cell body.
The endpoint of a neuron where neurotransmitters are stored
A layer of electrical insulation that surrounds the axon.
Neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord.
Neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands.
Neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs.
Cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons.
Act as immune system cells for the neurons, eating damaged cells and bacteria and protects neurons from foreign substances
Insulate neurons in the CNS by forming the myelin sheath
Insulate neurons in the PNS by forming the myelin sheath
The posterior portion of the brain including cerebellum, pons, medulla and brainstem.
Controls waking and sleeping. It also helps connect different parts of the brain.
Controls swallowing, breathing, blood pressure, sneezing. It connects the brain to the spinal cord.
A large structure of the hindbrain that looks after fine muscle movement, balance, sequential movements and coordination.
This screens information so we don't overload the brain. It also has a structure called the Reticular Activating System which helps us with our arousal (sleepiness vs. wakefulness)
Set of structures in the middle of the brain - it contains the reticular formation
This is the largest and most prominent part of the brain.
It includes the thalamus, hypothalamus and cerebrum
This releases hormones and influences behaviours relating to biological needs such as hunger and thirst.
This filters information from almost all of our senses (not our nose) and sends it to the area it needs to go to. It also filters non important information and helps with regulating arousal.
This has masses of neural tissue divided into two hemispheres (connected by a structure called the corpus calosum) and is broken into 4 lobes
Is the cerebrum's outer layer of nerve cell bodies which look like "gray matter" because it lacks myelin.
The specialisation and dominance of certain functions of the left and right cerebral hemispheres
Left hemisphere specialisation
Verbal tasks, mathematical skills, analytical functions, sensory and motor information from the right side of the body
Right hemisphere specialisation
Non verbal tasks, spatial activities, recognising people, perception of emotions, sensory and motor information of the left side of the body
The largest lobe involved in motor function, planning, personality and emotions
Primary Motor Cortex
A strip of neural tissue at the rear of the frontal lobe that is specifically involved in controlling voluntary bodily movements through its control of skeletal muscles
Controls language expression-area of the frontal lobe in the left hemisphere and directs muscle movements invloved in articulate speech
Lobe of the brain lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
A strip of neurons located at the front of the parietal lobe, adjacent to the primary motor cortex, which registers and processes sensory information from receptors in the body.
The lobe at the back of each cerebral hemisphere that is the primary receiving area for visual information.
Primary Visual Cortex
Receives and interprets info from the retina of the eyes, located in the occipital lobe.
The part of the brain that processes auditory information. Also associated with emotion, language, and memory formation.
Controls language reception. Damage creates inability to produce and comprehend language; usually in the left temporal lobe
Primary Auditory Cortex
Located in temporal lobe; receives info from the ear and auditory nerve
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