Psych Outcome 1B Stress
Terms in this set (44)
factual or descriptive pieces of information about the qualities of the behaviour/characteristics being measured
advantages of qualitative data
suggests possible relationships, gains insider info usually missed, allows for ambiguities reflective of social reality
disadvantages of qualitative data
time consuming, usually small samples, no empirical evidence
numerical measures used to quantify or describe the characteristics or behaviours being measured
advantages of quantitative data
objective, useful to test and construct theories, can be replicated
disadvantages of qualitative data
doesn't occur in a natural setting, needs large samples to be accurate, confirmation bias
data that has been gathered using systematic observation that is not influenced by any personal bias
data obtained by self report measures in which subjects give verbal or written responses to a series of research questions
state of psycho'physio tension experienced when a situation is threatening
healthy stress considered necessary and good to keep us motivated, alert and focused
considered unhealthy due to negative effects on body caused by increased levels of arousal
physiological signs of stress
skin rashes, headaches
cognitive signs of stress
lowered concentration and memory
psychological signs of stress
irritability, depression, anxiety
behavioral signs of stress
changes to eating and sleep habits
sources of stress
daily hassles, life events, catastrophes, acculturative stress
most commonly occurring stressor in everyday life. different for every individual as not everyone perceives a certain event to be stressful.
experiences which disrupt an individual's usual activities, causing substantial change or readjustment.
psychological impact of adapting to a new culture
unforeseen and unpredictable, totally out of control of the individual and impacting a wider community
acute stress response
initial reaction of fff response due to arousal of SNS, activated when body is confronted with a threatening or harmful stressor. an adaptive response which gives body necessary resources to maximize survival. SNS will release increased adrenaline to increase heart rate and reaction time which can be harmful long term.
chronic stress response
cortisol is released. cortisol is vital for maintaining well-being and health of body when under stress. release of cortisol increases body's ability to fight stressor but decreases immunity. if a stressor persists, cortisol activates for prolonged time period and gets depleted, so the body cannot cope with the stressor anymore. produced in adrenal glands and enhances state of arousal.
mobilization of one's systems and resources to cope with severely stressful situations, categorized by stages
initial response to stressor. resistance to stress lowered and temporarily falls below normal (shock) followed by a general defensive rebound (countershock)
after initial reaction to stressor, body attempts to adapt to the stressor and restore it's equilibrium, returning to a homeostatic state
if stress is prolonged or there are several stressors, body's ability to resists decreases, falling below normal. causing weakness and vulnerability to physio and psycho symptoms.
strengths of g.a.s
measures a predictable pattern which can be measured in individuals, tracks biological patterns in different types of stress
limitations of g.a.s
not conducted on humans, doesn't account for individual differences and psycho factors
lazarus and folkmans transactional model
Stress involves an encounter between an individual and their external environment. Regardless of whether the stressor is eustress or distress, the stress depends upon the individuals interpretation (appraisal) of the stressor, and their ability to cope with it.
evaluation of significance of a stressor or threatening event to be harm, challenge or threat
Evaluation of coping options, resources, and options of dealing with the event
damage that has already occurred
harm that has not yet occurred but will in the future
potential for personal growth from situation
problem focused coping
involves taking practical action to directly tackle the issue or stressful situation that is causing stress, consequently reducing the stress by changing or eliminating it's source.
emotion focused coping
aimed at effects of stress, trying to target thoughts and feelings associated with distress to reduce any negative emotional responses such as embarrassment or fear.
strengths of the model
accounts for individual differences in responses, responds to changes in individuals response through reappraisal
limitations of the model
lack of empirical evidence, an overlap between primary and secondary appraisal stages
context specific strategies
many situations are known to be stressful, eg. army. Stress and coping research can determine how someone will cope and what strategies are most effective for coping with that situation. It is most effective when the context can be replicated, so that individual differences may be predicted.
ability of an individual to replace an ineffective coping strategy with a effective one. There are many positive outcomes for individuals with high coping flexibilities.
physical benefits of exercise
releases built up muscle tension , increases cardiovascular efficiency and strength and stamina to enable an individual to better cope when confronted with future stressors
psychological benefits of exercise
removes person from stressful situation and allows them to redirect focus to positive interactions, relieves anxiety and tension, enhance wellbeing via endorphins.
behaviours which attempt to decrease stress by confronting and therefore alleviating the problem. This could be approaching or attempting to solve the problem and is a healthy response.
dealing with stress by protecting oneself from psycho distress. Unhealthy for individual and for relieving source of stress. Can ignore the problem or refuse to acknowledge it.
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