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Terms in this set (83)
Three categories of ribs
True ribs (1-7) - Articulate w/ sternum
False Ribs (8-10) Articulate w/ shared costal cartilage cartilage
Floating Ribs (11-12) No articulation w/ sternum
The head of each rib articulates where?
The head has 2 facets that articulate w/ each thoracic vertebral body
The tubercle of each rib articulates where?
The tubercle articulates @ the costal facet
What passes through the intervertebral foramen?
Spinal nerves carrying afferent and efferent signals
What does the ligamentum flavum connect?
Connect the laminae of adjacent vertebrae for axis (C2) to S2
How are vertebrae connected?
Anterior posterior ligament runs vertically along anterior spine
Posterior ligament runs vertically withinposterior vertebral canal
The manubrium marks the position of what other structures
Carina (bifurcation of bronchi)
Deep muscles attaching to the thoracic skeleton are known as:
Fiber direction of external intercostals
"hands in pocket"
External intercostals insert where?
Fiber direction of internal intercostals
"Hands out of pockets"
Internal intercostals insert where?
2 portions of internal intercostals and their fxns
Interchondral: involved in inspiration (lifts and expands)
Intercostal: involved in expiration (contracts)
What lays within the deltopectoral triangle?
Muscles used for quiet and labored inspiration
Add scalenes, SCM
Muscles used for quiet and labored expiration:
Quiet: None, recoil of diaphragm, ribcage and lungs
Labored: Add internal intercostals, abdominus rectus, external and internal obliques, transversus abdominus
Brachiocephalic vein receives contributions from what other vessels?
Internal thoracic vein
Internal thoracic artery arises from where?
Nerves and vessels run through what space between the internal and innermost intercostals?
Fibers run horizontally, parallel, and inferiorly to each rib
From superior to inferior, what is the arrangement of fibers within the neurovascualr bundle?
Vein, Artery, Nerve
Posterior intercostal nerves join which larger neural structure?
What is the relationship between intercostal nerves and dermatomes?
Dermatomes exist because intercostal nerves enter the sympathetic chain along different segments @ different vertebral levels > causes
What is the path of blood supply in the posterior thoracic cavity?
Aorta > posterior intercostal arteries
What is the path of blood supply in the anterior thoracic cavity?
Aorta > Subclavian artery > Internal thoracic artery > anterior intercostal arteries
Two vessels that branch inferiorly off of internal thoracic artery:
Superior epigastric artery (R/L)
Musculophrenic artery (R/L)
What vessel supplies the diaphragm?
What is located within the thoracic cavity?
Pleural Cavities (2)
Diaphragm is lower boundary
What is the difference between visceral and parietal pleura?
Parietal is along outer surface of lungs
Visceral is along inner lung parenchyma surface/cavity
Trachea and bifurcation of bronchi are located where in relation to esophagus/ ribs/ vertebral level?
Ventral to esophagus
Bifurcation is at 2nd rib/ vertebral level T4/5
At what vertebral level does the esophagus pass through the diaphragm?
Esophagus has neural innervation from what structure?
Esophageal nerve plexus, derived from vagal nerves and SNS nerves
What vessel drains the esophagus?
Azygos vein system
This gland is located within the mediastinum
Pericardial sac is composed of what two layers?
Visceral pericardium surround outside
Parietal pericardium lines inside
Heart lays within sac
What 2 vessels join to form the SVC?
2 brachiocephalic veins
SVC returns blood from where in the body?
All vessels superior to diaphragm except heart and lungs
Aorta ascends to what landmark?
Where does the aortic arch begin/ end?
Starts at level of sternal angle and ends at T4
Where does the descending aorta enter the abdomen?
Branches of the descending thoracic aorta?
Superior phrenic arteries
Posterior intercostal arteries
What venous system drains blood from the back and thoracoabdominal walls?
Azygos system- provides collateral flow in case IVC is blocked
Azygos vein runs where in the body?
Upward from T12 to T5 along the right side, arches over the root of the right lung and joins the SVC
Azygos system receives blood from what vascular structures
Posterior intercostal veins
Where can the Left vagus nerve be found in relation to the lungs?
Descends posterior to root of left lung, continues to esophagus, and continues as
vagal trunk in abdomen
Where can the right vagus nerve be found in relation to the lungs?
Descends posterior to root of right lung, continues to esophagus, continues as
vagal trunk in abdomen
Phrenic nerve is innervated by which spinal nerves?
C3 C4 C5 keep the diaphragm alive
What type of neural fibers innervate motor and sensory fibers to diaphragm?
GSE and GSA
Where does the phrenic nerve run in relation to the lungs?
Passes anterior to root of lungs
Left side runs along pericardium over LA/LV
Right side runs along R side of IVC
Both sides dive into diapragm
What structures run alongside the phrenic nerve?
The pericardiacophrenic artery is a branch of what vessel?
What are the three categories of splanchnic nerves and what are their vertebral levels?
Greater splanchnic run T5-9
Lesser splanchnic runs T10-11
Least/lowest splanchnic runs T12
What is the effect of a tumor on the L recurrent laryngeal nerve?
Can impinge and knock out one of the vocal folds
What is a diaphragmatic hiatus?
Openings on diaphragm that allows passage of structures
What are the locations of the three diaphragmatic hiatuses?
"I ate 10 eggs at noon"
IVC hiatus diaphragm @ T8
Esophageal hiatus @ T10 - opens for vagus + esophagus
Aortic hiatus @ T 12- opens for aorta + lymph tissue
What are the 4 divisions of the parietal pleura?
What innervates the parietal pleura?
Intercostal and phrenic nerves
What innervates the visceral pleura?
NOT PAIN SENSITIVE
Where are visceral and parietal pleura continuous with one another?
At root of the lung
What two smaller recesses make up the pleural recesses?
Fissures of the right lung:
Structural impressions visible on the right lung
Arch of Azygos vein
Which is higher: right pulmonary artery or right bronchus?
They are at same level
Fissures of the left lung:
Oblique fissure ONLY
Structural impressions visible on the left lung
Arch of aorta
L subclavian artery
Which is higher: left pulmonary artery or left bronchus?
Left pulmonary artery is most superior
Bronchus is inferior
Veins are inferor to bronchus
Small "third lobe" of left lung
Each bronchopulmonary segment is supplied by what?
1 tertiary bronchus
Branch of pulm artery
Which bronchus is wider and shorter?
Which bronchus will foreign bodies most often become lodged in?
Right bronchus (it's more directly in line with the trachea)
What innervates the serous pericardium?
What is the most superficial layer of pericadium
What are the two pericardial sinuses and where are they found?
Oblique: enclosed b/t the limbs of the venous mesocardium, BEHIND LEFT ATRIUM
Transverse: Between aorta and pulmonary trunk in front/ behind SVC
Left coronary artery gives rise to what vessels?
Left anterior interventricular artery
Right coronary artery gives rise to what vessels?
Right marginal artery
Posterior interventricular artery
The coronary sinus drains blood from what cardiac veins?
Great (from L heart)
Small (from R heart)
Middle (runs posteriorly/interverntricularly)
Heart dominance is determined by what?
Origin of the posterior interventricular artery, which is the origin of the AV nodal branch
What would happen to a left dominant heart with blockage of the left coronary artery?
It would receive no oxygenated blood to the AV node and most of the interventricular wall.
What chamber of the heart houses the fossa ovale in utero?
Tricuspid valve is attached to this structure in the right ventricle?
Chordae tendinae, which are in turn attached to papillary muscles
This structure conducts electrical signals from the IV septum to cardiac wall's trebeculae carnae?
Suptomarginal trabeculae ie Moderator band
How many pulmonary veins supply the left atrium?
4 pulmonary veins
Which ventricle has thicker walls?
Left, since it ejects into systemic circulation
What are the PSNS and SNS innervations of the heart's conducting system?
of spinal cord are distributed through T1-4 ganglia of sympathetic chain; pass through cardiac plexus and into SA node
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