Psychology - Personality
Terms in this set (67)
All the thoughts that we are aware of and can easily recall
Thoughts you can easily access, but are not currently in your conscious
Thoughts, feelings, motivations that you cannot consciously access or become consciously aware of
Accidentally using the wrong word in conversation, giving an accidental glimpse into the unconscious mind.
Strategies used to protect ourselves from unwanted/embarrassing thoughts and feelings
When thoughts/memories are kept in the unconscious mind, and prevented from being acknowledged by the conscious mind
Perceiving your own unconscious thoughts and feelings in others.
Protecting yourself from unconscious thoughts and feelings by acting in the opposite way
'Pleasure principle' - it wants whatever feels good at the time regardless of consequence or situation.
'Reality principle' - is the rational part of personality, it operates on the conscious part of the mind.
-Balance between id & superego.
-Needs to be the strongest of the three personality structures.
'Morality Principle' is our conscience and reflects the values of our society. Sense of right and wrong, guilt and pride.
When a part of the mind is unable to progress towards maturity and stays excited at an early stage of development.
Oral stage (0-1)
Main source of pleasure received through sucking, chewing, biting.
Fixation Consequences: Oral Stage
Eating problems, smoking, chewing gum later in life.
Anal stage (1-3)
Pleasure associated with bowel movements. During toilet training the child can gain approval or express rebellion by controlling bowel actions.
Fixation Consequences: Anal Stage
Harsh treatment by parents may result in anal-retentive personality (obsessively clean, stingy, stubborn). Lenient parenting may result in anal-expulsive personality (messy, destructive or cruel).
Phallic (Oedipal) Stage (3-6)
Id impulses focus on the genitals. Young children develop a sexual desire for the opposite sex parent. To avoid punishment, they give up this desire and adopt same-sex parent's values. SUPEREGO IS FORMED.
Fixation Consequences: Phallic (Oedipal) Stage and Latency Stage
May lead to difficulties with authority figures and a weak sense of morality.
Sexual instincts die down, and the superego develops. The child focuses on expanding social values and social domain outside the family.
Sexual urges reappear and focus on genitals. Sexual energy directed towards others.
Fixation Consequences: Genital
May lead to inability to form a mature, loving sexual relationship.
'implanted from the beginning'. Shared by whole human race. Helped Jung to make sense of patient's dreams, contained important msgs from unconscious.
2 Layers of unconscious
Personal and Collective
Personal Unconscious (Jung)
Stores material in unconscious that is repressed or forgotten
Collective Unconscious (Jung)
Stores latent memory traces inherited from a person's ancestral history; shared w/ entire human race. (Archetypes)
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
A series of ambiguous pictures are shown to the client. The. client is then asked to tell a story about the characters in the picture, the content of the response is then assessed
Achieving harmony between the elements of personality, understanding yourself -> striving for positive goals and achieving full potential.
Rorschach inkblot test
A series of inkblot pictures, the client then describes what they see, the content it then analysed to assess personality and unconscious motivation.
Clients encouraged to remember and discuss the content of their dreams. The hidden meanings of their dreams are analysed to determine the unconscious motivations of the client.
Refers to slip of the tongue, slips of the pen or lapses in memory. Freud believed these were important signs that revealed unconscious motivations of the client.
Why personality assessments that are subjective are problematic.
The observations are not objective. Observations are limited to the therapist's world view, life experiences and the theory they subject to. Non-factual information.
Criticisms of Freud's Theory
1. Untestable and subjective
2. Abstract concepts.
3. Limited focus
A warm, supportive approach to therapy, driven by the patient and focused on feelings. The therapist's role is to provide unconditional positive regard so that the patient can grow to self-actualisation.
Strengths of Freud's Theory/Psychodynamic Conception
1. Unconscious thoughts can influence behaviour
2. Internal conflict is a key factor in psychological distress
3. Early childhood experiences can influence adult personality
4. People do use defence mechanisms to reduce unpleasant emotional experience.
Roger's 3 Important Aspects in Shaping Personality
Self-Concept - How the person perceives themselves. Thoughts and feelings an individual about oneself and their relationship with others.
Ideal-self - how an individual would like to be.
Experiences - how we interpret the situations and experiences we find ourselves in.
When our experiences, self-concept and ideal-self are relatively lined up, Rogers said we experiences 'Congruence' and are likely to have a happy, stable personality.
When our experiences, self concepts and ideal self are not lined up, we are more likely to have personality problems or 'incongruence'.
Unconditional Positive Regard
Acceptance, love and support no matter what.
Conditional Positive Regard
The acceptance, love and support only if expectations are met.
Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
focuses on the priority of some needs over others, requirements for future growth
Description of Self-Actualised Personality
Embraces reality, spontaneous, creative, problem solvers, feel close to others, without prejudice and have a fully internalised system of morality.
temporary moments of self-actualization - at one with the universe, moving past one's self.
3 ways in which humanism differs from psychodynamic
1. Optimistic - people will find their own happiness if given the right environment.
2. Not limited to childhood experiences shaping personality
3. Focused on exploring healthy personalities rather than diagnosing the abnormal.
Humanistic approaches to assessing personality (2 ways)
Conducted in warm, supporting environment, where therapist gives unconditional positive regard
of individuals interacting with others and their environment in order to assess congruency of individual's self-concept.
-identifying traits and characteristics and behaviours as a result.
Common Criticisms of Humanist Conception
1. Humanists are unrealistic, romantic and naive about personality.
2. Some concepts, such as unconditional positive regard, are hard to scientifically test.
3. Hierarchy of needs not always true, sometimes individuals are motivated to fulfil higher order needs before lower order ones are met.
An enduring characteristics of a person that influence their behaviour in a particular domain.
3 Assumptions of Trait Theories
1. Personality (traits) are static and unchanging.
2. Personality traits can be observed and measured.
3. Personality traits can predict future behaviour.
Freud - Psychological theories that emphasise the importance change in development and/or the importance of motivations and drives.
Eyesenck's 3 Dimensions of Personality
Extraversion ---> Introversion
Neuroticism ---> Stability
Psychoticism ---> Impulse Control
Humanistic psychology is a perspective that emphasizes looking at the whole individual and stresses concepts such as free will, self-efficacy, and self-actualization. Rather than concentrating on dysfunction, humanistic psychology strives to help people fulfill their potential and maximize their well-being.
Apply to a wide range of situations.
Apply to a particular situation or area of life.
Trait theorists are primarily interested in the measurement of traits, which can be defined as habitual patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion.
Influential trait researcher. Determined 16 source traits to describe personality, each exist on continuum between two extremes.
Comparing Cattel and Eyesenck's Trait Conceptions
Similarities - attempts to explain personality characteristics, focuses on cardinal traits
Differences - attempts to explain personality traits using biology, one is quite specific, other tries to encompass a lot.
Self-report tests that seek to measure a broad range of variables(traits) in relation to personality.
PROVIDE OBJECTIVE DATA
Explain how objective assessment using personality inventory differs from psychodynamic approach.
Personality inventories are designed in a way to limit subjective answers. Questions carefully designed to limit possible answers.
Designed to show differences between groups (normal-abnormal)
Designed to measure characteristics
A type of therapy to help individuals overcome shyness and inhibition and improve communication. It aims at helping people stand up for themselves whilst still acknowledging the rights of others.
Define the 'most authoritative manal that describes personality and psychiatric disorders'
DSM-IV. Diagnostic Statistic Manual
Gaining understanding and developing happiness, well-being,optimism, strength and the 'meaningful life'. Don't assume things are their fault, won't keep happening and will not affect other areas of life.
Ethical Issues with Personality Theory
-Bias against unconventional lifestyles/choices
-Subjective - open to interpretation, getting personality incorrect can be harmful.
-Need to be administered by a trained professional
Most Problematic Measures of personality
Psychodynamic Projection Exercises
Most reliable and valid personality measure