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RESPIRATORY / ASTHMA - FB B.bmed
Terms in this set (6)
Explain the pathobiology of asthma and clinical manifestation
chronic airway inflammation (collagen --> thick basement membrane) and hyperresponsiveness.
Allergens --> APC present it to the T cells --> Th2 cells
through eosinophils recruitment, IL-9 and Bcell class switching (M > E) causing mast cell and basophil degranulation --> release of Histamine, leukotrienes prostaglandins flooding the area leading to bronchoconstriction.
Airway remodelling in asthma causing death
with chronic inflammation that happens in Asthmatic patients, Mesenchymal transition from epithelial to fibroblast happens, leading to collagen deposition and thickening of the matrix.
epithelial differentiation from ciliated cells into mucus secreting goblet cells also occurs. This leads to mucus hyper-secretion which is the main cause of death in Asthma patient.
Mucus can go into and block the airway which can be fatal.
ps: smooth muscle hypertrophy, neuronal sprouting and vascular remodelling also evident in asthma
why it works and why its shouldnt be used
it contains atropine, a bronchodilator
It has narrow therapeutic window and is hallucinogenic
how does constrictors and relaxants works
constrictors such as histamine, ach and leukotriene - cause phosphorylation of myosin light chain
relaxants prevent phosphorylation of myosin light chain by activating PKA --> MLC-phosphatase
mechanism of action of glucocorticoid
For treatment for Athma, make sure that the glucocorticoid is specific for GR (eg. Prednisolone) bcs if it binds to MR, it can lead to VC and water retention
Anyway, it binds to GR and get internalised to the target genome (GRE-glucocorticoid responds element) leading to:
Transactivation (at high dose),
gene activation of
- anti-inflam gene
- beta-2 adrenoreceptors gene
- apoptotic genes in immune cells
At low dose, transrepression,
turning OFF pro-inflammatory genes leading to suppression of
- inducible enzymes of inflammation
- inflammatory cytokines
- adhession molecule
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
RESPIRATORY - COPD - FB B.bmed
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