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Unification of Italy
Terms in this set (11)
Formed the Young Italy movement in 1830, exiled for his views, His writings and speeches provided inspiration to the nationalist movement. Often referred to as the 'heart' of Italian Unification.
From 1852 was Prime Minister of the Italian state of Piedmont-Sardinia. He shrewdly formed alliances with France and later with Prussia, in order to facilitate the expansion of Piedmont and then the unification of Italy. Secretly supported Garibaldi's expedition to Sicily.
Republican patriotic leader was a soldier who led the forces that won control of Southern Italy to unite with the north. He handed over his conquests to King Victor Emmanuel II of Piedmont-Sardinia, thereby enabling the unification of Italy under a monarchy.
Victor Emmanuel II
He was king of Piedmont-Sardinia until 1861 when he was crowned the first king of a united Italy.
Factors Preventing Unification
- Political divisions (republicans versus monarchists)
- Austrian opposition
- Foreign influence and control of many areas
- Lack of unity as Italy was divided into many states with different rulers
- Lack of legitimate leadership
- Divisions between north and south
- Opposition of the Pope
Factors leading to Unification
- Leadership of Piedmont-Sardinia
- Favourable international situation
- Growth of national feeling during and after Napoleonic era
- Growing discontent with autocratic rulers in many states
- Influence of nationalist movements e.g. the Carbonari, Young Italy and the Risorgimento
- Leadership of Cavour, Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel II
Leaders of Unification
Stages of unification
Stage 1 - Second War of Italian Independence 1859-60 Piedmont-Sardinia (with French support) versus Austria. P-S gained Lombardy (but lost Nice and Savoy). Plebiscites in other northern states followed and they joined with P-S, leading to the unification of most of northern Italy.
Stage 2 - Garibaldi's expedition to Sicily resulting in his conquest of the southern states, and the creation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861 when he handed these to Victor Emmanuel II.
Stage 3 - After supporting Prussia in the 1866 Austro-Prussian War, Italy received Venetia and in October 1870, when French troops were withdrawn from Rome to fight in the Franco-Prussian War, Rome voted to join the union the whole of Italy was finally united.
Pope Pius IX
Refused to join with the new Kingdom of Italy
Napoleon III is represented as a tree holding up all Italy's (symbolised by the lady) enemies.
These autocratic rulers controlled the southern states of Italy. Their repressive rule caused uprisings which motivated Garibaldi's Expedition of the Thousand.
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