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Terms in this set (93)
What are the functions of the cardiovascular system?
- Transport of nutrients, oxygen and hormones to cells throughout the body
- The metabolic removal of wastes
What are the structures in the cardiovascular system?
- The heart
What are arteries
Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
What are veins?
Blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart
What are capillaries?
One cell-thick vessels that connect arterioles and venules
What is systemic circulation?
circulation between heart and body
What is pulmonary circulation?
circulation between heart and lungs
What are the components of blood?
- Red Blood Cells
- White Blood Cells
What are red blood cells?
Cells that have no nuclei and contain haemoglobin to transport oxygen.
What are white blood cells?
Cells with nuclei that defend us from disease. Two main types are:
What is plasma?
liquid portion of blood
What are platelets?
Small fragments of cells that involved with clotting
What is homeostasis?
the ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in an ever-changing outside world
What is hyperthermia?
the condition of having a body temperature greatly above normal.
What is hypothermia?
when the body temperature of a victim is too low
What is vasodilation?
the dilatation of blood vessels, which decreases blood pressure.
What is vasoconstriction?
the constriction of blood vessels, which increases blood pressure.
What is stroke volume?
the amount of blood ejected by the heart in any one contraction
What is heart rate?
number of beats per minute
What is cardiac output?
heart rate x stroke volume
What is blood pressure?
the pressure of the blood in the circulatory system
What is atherosclerosis?
a disease of the arteries characterized by the deposition of plaques of fatty material on their inner walls.
What is coronary heart disease?
Layers of fatty material build up inside the coronary arteries, narrowing them.
What is high cholesterol?
Associated with saturated fat - can lead to increased blood pressure, heart attack and stroke
What is hypertension?
high blood pressure
What is a stroke?
blood clot in the brain
What is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?
a preventable and treatable disease state characterized by chronic airflow limitations that is not fully reversible.
What are the functions of the respiratory system?
- absorption of oxygen
- discharge of carbon dioxide
- acid-base balance
What is a conducting system?
A system of specialized cardiac muscle cells that initiates and distributes electrical impulses that stimulate contraction
What is the pleura?
What is the diaphragm?
muscle under the rib cage involved in breathing
What are the mechanics of breathing?
What is diffusion?
The movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
What is VO2 max?
Maximum ability of CV system to transport O2 to working muscles during severe exercise (> 50 % muscle mass)
What is vital capacity?
the volume of air that the patient can exhale after a maximal inhalation.
What is residual volume?
Air in lungs after maximal expiration.
What is tidal volume?
volume of air inhaled in a single breath
What is inspiratory reserve volume?
Amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inhalation
What is expiratory reserve volume?
air that can still be breathed out after normal expiration
What are legal methods of performance enhancement?
- Altitude training
- Aerobic training
What are illegal substances and methods of performance enhancement?
- Blood doping
- Beta blockers
What are the functions of the skeletal system?
- blood cell formation
What are connective tissues?
Tissues that support, connect and protect other tissues such as blood, bone, tendons, ligaments.
What are tendons?
attach muscle to bone
What are ligaments?
Connect bone to bone
What is cartilage?
Flexible connective tissue
What are short bones?
cube shaped bones of the wrist and ankle
What are long bones?
bones that are longer than they are wide
What are sesamoid bones?
bones that develop from tendons
What are flat bones?
a thin layer of spongy bone is sandwiched between two layers of compact bone
What are irregular bones?
What are the types of joints?
What are fibrous joints?
Bones united by collagenic fibers
What are cartilaginous joints?
bones connected by cartilage
What are synovial joints?
freely movable joints
What are the types of synovial joints?
- ball and socket
What are ball and socket joints?
allows movement in any direction, round end of long bone fits into hollow of another bone
ex. hips and shoulders
What are hinge joints?
movement in one direction only
What are pivot joints?
What are gliding joints?
Flat surfaces of the bone slide over one another
What are saddle joints?
Bone surfaces are convex on one side and concave on the other
What are condyloid joints?
The oval head of one bone fits into a shallow cavity of another bone.
What is flexion and extension?
- Flexion: reduces angle of joint
- Extension: increases angle of the joint; returns part to anatomical position
What is circumduction?
combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction
What is abduction and adduction?
- Abduction: movement away from the midline
- Adduction: movement towards the midline
What is supination and pronation?
- Supination: turning backwards
- pronation: turning forward
What is plantarflexion and dorsiflexion?
- Plantarflexion: bending of the toes towards the sole of the foot
- Dorsiflexion: the backward motion of a body part
What is eversion and inversion?
- eversion: turning inside out
- inversion: turning outside in
What is rotation?
act of rotating about an axis or centre
What is hyperextension?
movement beyond the anatomical position
What is superior and inferior?
- Superior: above
- Inferior: below
What is anterior and posterior
- Anterior: front
- posterior: back
What is medial and lateral?
- medial: toward the midline
- lateral: away from the midline
What is proximal and distal?
- proximal: closer to the centre
- distal: further away from the centre
What is superficial and deep
- superficial: closer to the skin
- deep: further away from the skin
What are the functions of the muscular system?
- joint stability
- heat production
What are the types of muscles?
What are skeletal muscles?
Voluntary muscles that are attached to bones
What are smooth muscles?
What are cardiac muscles?
What are the muscle fibre arrangements?
What is fusiform?
tapering at both ends; spindle shaped
What is pennate?
Fibers attached to tendon at oblique angle; resembles a feather
What is radiate?
diverge or spread from or as if from a central point
What is the sliding filament theory?
theory that actin filaments slide toward each other during muscle contraction, while the myosin filaments are still
What are the types of contractions?
- isoinertial eccentric
- isoinertial concentric
What is isometric contraction?
no shortening; muscle tension increases but does not exceed load
What is eccentric contraction?
lengthening of muscle
What is a concentric contraction?
shortening of muscle
What is isokinetic contraction?
Contraction of a muscle in which a machine provides variable resistance to force a constant speed of contraction.
What are the types of muscle fibres?
- Slow twitch
- Fast Twitch A
- Slow Twitch B
What are slow twitch fibers?
Muscle fibers developing slow tension - often used to maintain posture; sustain long contractions
What are fast twitch fibers?
muscles fatigue faster but are used in powerful bursts of movements like sprinting
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