Terms in this set (32)
3 key drivers of environmental problems
1. population growth
3. spread of technologies that are resource intensive and highly polluting
When was the rise in the human drivers of environmental problems?
started with the industrial revolution in the 18th - 19th centuries.
Accelerated in the second half of the 20th century
What are the pressures caused by drivers of environmental problems?
- increasing greenhouse gas emissions interfere with climate
- clearing of forest for agriculture and urban development reduce habitats
- pollution affects air and water quality
-water consumption degrades aquatic ecosystems
-waste causes hazards for terrestrial and marine species.
state and trends of environmental problems
- declining environmental quality
- increase in temp.
- rising sea levels
- declining ice
- biodiversity loss
-exceeded the world biocapacity
impacts of environmental problems
- increased mortality rate
- unsafe drinking water
- increasing health costs, damage to property, rising economic costs and impaired production.
What year was Agenda 21
Definition of sustainability
Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
What year did we exceed the world's biocapacity
How many sustainable development goals are there?
communities and generations
political leaders and public servants
producers and consumers
GHG's, pollution, waste
Materials, energy, and biodiversity
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
Replenish, Repair, Restore
Interconnected Earth Systems of lithosphere (land), hydrosphere (water), atmosphere (air), and biosphere (life)
Living planet index graph: How much did biodiversity decline between 1970 and 2012?
58% decline in biodiversity
What sustainable development goals were addressed
2 Zero hunger
7 Affordable and clean energy
8 decent work and economic growth
9 Industry, innovation, and infrastructure
11 sustainable cities and communities
12 responsible consumption and production
13 Climate action
14 Life blow water
15 Life on land
16 peace justice and strong institutions
17 partnerships for the goals
--> but technically all were addressed in week 3
Global ecological footprint/ world biocapacity graph
- exceeded the world biocapacity limit in 1970
- using the equivalent of 1 1/2 Earths
- carbon is the biggest component
Green House Gas Emissions graphs
sharp rise since the 20th century. The highest emissions have been in the last 2000 years
temperatures greater than previously recorded and rising sharply with almost no fluctuation. Highest temperatures recorded in the last 2000 years.
- A formula showing that pollution increases during the early stages of a country's development, then declines, and eventually stabilizes at a relatively low level.
-technology transfer from developed to developing countries could avoid the high polluting stage.
- Developed and developing countries could move toward a common low polluting future
- a model that treats cities as living organisms
- intakes food from the environment (in form of resources)
- outputs waste, pollution, and GHGs into environment
-- currently linear, with high inputs and outputs
-- sustainable option is circular, which reduces inputs and produces minimal waste, pollution and GHG outputs.
The largest component of the global ecological footprint is the...
the greenhouse effect refers to
the ability of the atmosphere to trap heat
The reflection of light by snow is called
the albedo effect
Steps of the food life cycle
Input, produce, process, distribute, consume, dispose
which cities is air pollution declining in?
74 major Chinese cities including Xi'an and Jinan
THe whole planet can be understood as a network of inter-linked natural and human systems.
-> everything is connected.
-> there are feedback mechanisms, so damaging something can flow on to affect other parts and eventually circle back to impact humanity
Global Environmental Outlook (GEO - 5) (2012)
-230% increase in flood disasters
-38% increase in drought disasters (1980s-2000)
- one fifth of all vertebrates threatened with extinction
-collapse of marine ecosystems and creation of 169 "coastal dead zones"
-There was a lack of data