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Terms in this set (26)
Tax on salt during pre-revolutionary France-included in the Estate's list of grievances.
The clergy of the church; 0.6 per cent of the population (200 000); owned 10% of the land; paid no taxes- 16 million livres donation
"The Nobles"---Make up 2% of population (300 000), but owns 25% of land. Paid no taxes, held highest offices in government. Controlled the most wealth.
Everybody else; paid most of the taxes and had the least amount of property
Unpaid labor (as for the maintenance of roads) required by a lord of his vassals in lieu of taxes
the upper class of the third estate- 8% of population (2 475 000), including merchants, industrialists, and professional people. Heavily taxed and sought political rights.
A tax levied on the common people by the king or an overlord.
Formerly, the eldest son of the King of France and direct heir to the throne
French regional courts dominated by hereditary nobles. The Parlement of Paris claimed the right to register royal decrees before they could become law.
Official appointed by French king Louis XIV to govern the provinces, collect taxes, and recruit soldiers
A family's payment of one-tenth of its income to a church
An office sold by the state that was used to raise money, but generally exempted the purchaser from many taxes and brought some power, but was mostly pointless, allowed some upward mobility for 4000 bourgeoisie
A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700's . It emphasized reason and the scientific method. Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics, and science, rather than on imagination, emotions, or religion. Many members of the Enlightenment rejected traditional religious beliefs in favor of Deism, which holds that the world is run by natural laws without the direct intervention of God.
Swiss Financial expert of Louis XVI, he advised Louis to reduce court spending, tax the first and second estates, abolish tarriffs on internal trade in order to avoid bankruptcy... dismissed after publishing the Crowns Finances
Assembly of Notables
A group of nobles and aristocrats invited by the king of France to discuss reform of the government.
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution.
Refers to the political developments of 1787-89, when pressure from noble institutions such as the parliaments and Assembly of Notables forced the king to summon the Estates General.
Briefly replaced Necker as Minister of Finance. Wanted new land tax, lower taxes, internal trade, grain/salt trade. Needed approval of Estates General, blocked by nobility.
Royal French residence and seat of government established by King Louis XIV
American Revolution (1775-1783)
A period when 13 colonies gained independence from England. Based on disapproval by colonists of several taxes and other unpopular laws. Protests lead to fighting in 1775, and after two main British armies were captured in 1777 and 1781 and an alliance of the colonists with the French, the Treaty of Paris was signed.
Agents who purchased from the crown the rights to collect taxes in a particular district.
Queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)
Louis XVI (16th)
King of France during the French Revolution
Louis XIV (Sun King)
He ruled from 1643-1715, the longest reign in French history. He constructed Versailles, believed in divine right of kings, engaged in many wars, and established absolutism in France.
a person who attends a royal court as a companion or adviser to the king or queen.
Peasants and urban workers
Poor of the third estate 89.4% (25 075 000) Carried the burden of all taxation.
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