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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
French Revolution Exam Revision (CAUSES)
Terms in this set (47)
Revenge motivated France to join the American colonists in the War of Independence against Great Britain. From 1778-1783 France sent soldiers, equipment and financial support. However, the war proved to be very expensive for the French. What was the total cost of French involvement in the War of Independence?
1 billion livres
Crippling foreign loans were required as a result of French involvement in the War of Independence: Necker borrowed 520 million livres and Joly de Fleury borrowed 252 million livres. How much did Calonne borrow?
653 million livres
Lafayette became close friends with George Washington and, like many officers, was influenced by 'the American Spirit' of representative government. This democratic impulse was based on the claim of the colonists: 'No X without representation'. What is X?
In May 1788 the Parlement openly criticised the King's power of Lettres de Cachet and renewed its calls for the convocation of the Estates-General. By what name was this controversial declaration known?
Declaration of the Fundamental Laws of the Kingdom
From May to July 1788, in response to the creation of Plenary Courts, there were popular riots in Rennes in support of the local Parlement and the Intendent of Brittany was forced to flee. Which violent protest in Grenoble, in June 1788, witnessed alarming signs of dissent within officer ranks?
Day of the Tiles
What title was given to privileges that allowed nobles to carry a sword, have a coat of arms, take precedence at public occasions, have an enclosed pew at church, enjoy exemption from military service and the corvee, and have special hunting rights?
What title was given to the privileges that allowed nobles to be exempt from the main taxes such as the taille, enabled them to be tried in special courts and preserved for them the right to be executed by the sword if found guilty of a capital offence?
The ranks of the upper clergy (cardinals, archbishops, bishops, abbots and canons) were filled by the nobility. As a result, up to what percentage of Church revenues went to the nobility?
Turgot estimated that peasants paid up to what percentage of the gross value of their income to the Crown in taxes?
Which finance minister introduced the 'Six Edicts' in 1776 calling for a single tax on land to replace the existing indirect taxes?
Name the minister who introduced the 'Compte Rendu' in 1781 which misleadingly reported a surplus of 10 million livres.
Who, in 1786, reported an annual deficit of 112 million livres and recommended the abolition of privilege and the introduction of a universal land tax in the 'Plan for the Improvement of Finances' (1786)?
In the summer of 1788, the government was on the verge of bankruptcy - with only 4,000 livres left in the Treasury. According to Simon Schama, 'enough money for the government to function for...'
The Parlement of Paris decreed on 25 September 1788 that the Estates-General will vote by order in accordance with the traditional custom that was practiced the last time the Estates-General met. When was that?
The seigneurial system of the ancien regime was criticised by what percentage of all cahiers?
At which meeting on 23 June 1789 did Louis try - unsuccessfully - to reject the Tennis Court Oath, re-assert royal authority, and order the 3 estates to meet separately?
How many troops did Louis surrounded Paris with in late June-early July 1789?
What was permitted by the Crown in lead up to Estates-General, leading to a proliferation of pamphlets and popular literature?
freedom of speech
Complete this line from Sieyes' pamphlet of January 1789: 'What is the Third Estate?...
In the Summer of 1788 a storm devastated crops in...
the Paris basin
On the eve of the Revolution, public opinion mistakenly linked the economic crisis with the government's 1786 free trade policy with Britain. What was the name of this treaty?
In the 'Spirit of the Laws' (1748), who advocated a division of powers between the legislature, the executive and the judiciary?
Who wrote 'The Social Contract' (1762) in which the general will and popular sovereignty were advocated?
In February-May 1787 which institution rejected the tax reforms of Calonne?
Assembly of Notables
Who was critical of 'a well-powdered nobleman who knows exactly at what minute the king goes to bed...'?
Who wrote, 'If we took away the privileged order, the nation would not be reduced, but made stronger'?
The Cahier de Doléance of the Clergy of X called for taxes to be proportional and universal; what is X?
In the Peasant Revolt and Great Fear (July-Aug 1789) peasants refused to pay tithes and dues, demanded stock graze on common land, burned down chateaux, and destroyed manorial rolls. By what other name were these manorial rolls known?
At the Tennis Court Oath (20 June 1789) 'a solemn oath not to separate' was taken until what is established?
constitution of the kingdom
Louis reluctantly accepted the adoption of constitutional monarchy on 17 July 1789 by appearing on the balcony of which building bearing a revolutionary cockade to the acclamation of the crowd?
Hotel de Ville
Louis XVI's belief in royal absolutism was influenced Louis XIV who advised 'The head alone has the right to deliberate and decide...'. In which document did this appear?
Memoirs for the Instruction of the Dauphin
Name the minister who asserted the principle of divine right absolutism in November 1787, stating '...the king is the sovereign head of the Nation...legislative power resides in the person of the king...'
A supporter of liberal ideas, the Duc d'Orleans was a member of which revolutionary movement?
Society of Thirty
Born to a great noble family, the Comte de Mirabeau was rejected by the Second Estate of Provence and joined the Estates-General as a deputy for which estate in Aix?
A supporter of constitutional monarchy, Mirabeau was a member of which political faction?
On 15 July 1789 - the day after the fall of the Bastille - Lafayette was appointed to which important office in the revolutionary government?
Commander of the National Guard
At crucial times Lafayette struggled to control the Paris mob. The first such failure was the murder of Bertier and Foulon in July 1789, when was the second?
Women's March to Versailles
In 1789 Camille Desmoulins was an unsuccessful candidate for the Estates-General; prior to that, what other role had he failed at?
On 12 July 1789 Desmoulins declared, 'To arms, to arms...I would rather die than submit to X'. What is X?
Name the hospital and arms depot attacked by 30,000 angry sans-culottes as they armed themselves and headed for Bastille.
How many died in the attack on the Bastille?
Name the nobleman who made the famous remark, 'No Sire, it is a revolution'.
Duc de Liancourt
Name the Governor of the Bastille who eventually surrendered and was murdered by the mob (who hacked off his head with a pen-knife).
Which strange phenomenon coincided with the Peasant Revolt, sending waves of panic throughout the French countryside?
Peasants - duped by false rumours of armed 'brigands' vengefully burning crops - feared aristocratic revenge for the Peasant Revolt and which other revolutionary event?
fall of the Bastille
There were grave suspicions about Louis' support for the Revolution. He questioned the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen on 4 October and, on 18 September, rejected which other foundation document of the French Revolution?
A welcome banquet was held for which regiment at which Marat claimed the King's drunken troops trampled - and even urinated - on the revolutionary cockade?
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