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Dietary planning MID SEM
Terms in this set (54)
Name 4 dietary planning principles:
Adequacy, balance, energy control, nutrient density, moderation, variety
Name 3 sources for guidelines:
WHO, nutrient reference values for Aus & NZ, Aus dietary guidelines
What is dietary energy required for?
Metabolic processes, physiological functions, muscular activity, heat production, growth & synthesis of tissues
Besides inadequate intake, what might undernutrition stem from?
Impaired digestive function or metabolic processing, increase excretion of nutrients.
What tests might you conduct to assess protein status?
Nitrogen balance, serum albumin, urinary creatinine
What might cause an increase and decrease of serum calcium?
Increase- hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism. Decreased- hypoparathyroidism, deff. of Mg and vita D.
What might cause an increase and decrease of serum sodium?
Increase- dehydration. Decrease- kidney disease, excessive sweating and diarrhoea.
What is anthropometry?
Science of measuring the human body
What are the main anthropometric assessments used in clinic?
BMI, waist: hip ratio, waist circumference
3 advantages and disadvantages of BIA:
Adv.- quick & easy to perform, reasonably accurate, portable. Dis.- does not take into consideration location of body fat, if person is dehydrated a higher fat reading will be given, expensive.
Why is lean muscle mass so important for health?
Guards against obesity & bone demineralisation, aids cellular insulin & glucose sensitivity, reduces risk of depression, improves sex steroid ratios
What are the factors contributing to anabolism?
Insulin & IGF-1 signalling lead to protein synthesis, adequate dietary protein esp. leucine, resistance training.
What are the factors contributing to catabolism?
Excessive alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, inactive lifestyle, insufficient protein & energy intake, vitamin D deff. causing decreased muscle function & quality.
Why are skin fold tests useful?
Estimates total body fat, assessment of location of fat
What are 5 methods useful for monitoring a client's progress?
Weight, waist: hip ratio, BP, general appearance, life coping mechanisms to e.g. stress
How could you motivate a client to make dietary changes?
Balance sheet/ Pros cons list of both 'change' and 'no change'
What assists clients in maintaining dietary changes?
Support network, keeping the diet exciting, a strong desire to be healthy
How do you calculate waist: hip ratio?
Waist in cm / hip in cm
What are the aims of dietary planning in the preconception period?
Reduce adverse reproductive outcomes for mother, father and foetus/ newborn
What are 3 physiological imbalances for males and females affecting infertility?
M- hypogonadism, alterations to sperm transport, testicular trauma. F- tubal factors, endocrine disorders, ovulation disorders.
What effects does being overweight or obese have in preconception for women?
BMI > 27- greater menstrual irregularities, anovulation, infertility, miscarriage & congenital anomalies
What effect does being underweight have in preconception for women?
BMI < 19- irregular or absent menstruation
What effect does being overweight have in preconception for males?
Decreased sperm concentration, abnormal morphology & motility, compromised chromatin integrity, erectile dysfunction
What are 2 AA used in preconception care and why?
Arginine, carnitine. Improves sperm and oocyte parameters.
What is one use of a-lipoic acid in preconception care?
Helps stabilise blood sugar irregularities & prevent gestational diabetes.
What is one nutrient strongly implicated in those undergoing IVF?
Why is vitamin D important in preconception care?
It regulates the transcription & function of genes controlling angiogenesis & implantation
What antioxidant is particularly important for females and males undergoing preconception care?
Why are EFA so important in preconception care?
Essential for normal neural development of foetus
Deff in what mineral can impair the ability to maintain proper pregnancy?
In women trying to conceive w/ thyroid issues, what nutrients should be given?
How much folate should be taken to reduce the risk of neural tube defects?
400 mcg 1 month prior to conception continued for first 3 months of pregnancy
How much iodine should be taken in a supplement by women trying to conceive or those pregnant or breastfeeding?
Why is zinc important for sperm?
Improves sperm quality & concentration, reduces oxidative stress, assists in testosterone production
What are the additional energy requirements in the second & third trimester?
2nd- +1400 KJ p/day. 3rd- +1900 KJ p/day
Protein requirements increase to what amount during pregnancy?
1.0 g/ kg of body weight
What are other important nutrients for pregnancy?
B6, folate, B12, choline, vitamin A, vitamin C, EPA/DHA, chromium, iodine, iron, zn, mg
What are common food borne contaminants in pregnancy?
Listeria (meats, dairy), salmonella, toxoplasmosis (raw/ undercooked meats, unwashed fruit + veg, water), methylmercury (mackerel, tuna)
What should caffeine intake be limited to to avoid the risk of low birth weight and spontaneous abortion?
300 mg p/day
How much should a healthy-weight women ideally gain during pregnancy?
1st trimester 1-2kg. 2nd and 3rd- 400 grams p/wk
How much should an overweight patient gain during pregnancy?
What is low weight gain and high weight gain during pregnancy associated with?
Low- increased risk intrauterine growth retardation & perinatal mortality. High- high birth weight, increased risk of complication related to foetopelvic disproportion.
How can you manage pre-eclampsia?
Increase antioxidant intake, consume low GI foods/ increase fibre, reduce sodium intake
What nutrient protects against pre-eclampsia?
How could you manage gestational diabetes?
Low GI foods, increase fibre & omega-3 intake, exercise for 15-30 minutes 3 x wk
What supplements can be used for gestational diabetes?
Chromium, lipoic acid, Mg (200-400 mg), vitamin D IF deficient
In pre-conception, if ferritin status sits below 30 what dose should you supplement?
In pre-conception, if ferritin status sits at 30-70, what dose should you supplement?
Polyphenols in tea, divalent metals (ca, zn, manganese) phytates & oxylates inhibit the absorption of what mineral?
What 3 foods enhance iron absorption?
Sugars, acids, animal protein
What is adequate iodine intake for a pregnant woman?
150-249 p/day dietary intake
What is adequate intake of iodine for a lactating woman and children under 2 yrs?
How much extra energy and fluids should a women be consuming p/day during lactation?
2000-2100 KJ, 500 ml
Consumption of what nutrients should increase during lactation?
Fibre, linoleic acid, omega-3, protein
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