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UNIT 3 AOS 1
Terms in this set (58)
The link between the spinal cord and the brain.
Important for movement and balance
Coordinates movement, sleep and arousal.
Retrieves and processes sensory information and controls higher order thinking
Problem solving, memory, language and emotions.
Central Nervous System
Made up of the brain and the spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
Carries messages to and from the central nervous system using sensory and motor neurons.
Autonomic Nervous System
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.
Involuntary system as it does not require the control of the individual.
Somatic Nervous System
carries messages from sensory receptors to the CNS and motor messages from the CNS to the body using motor and sensory neurons.
Carry messages from the brain to the muscles for voluntary movement.
Carry information to the brain from the body
neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
Sympathetic Nervous System
the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
Causes a fight-flight-freeze response.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
Counters the effects of the Sympathetic NS to return the body to a normal functioning state.
A state of alertness and mental and physical activation
Fight or Flight/Freeze Response
A state of mental and physical arousal that prepares the body to deal with threats. the individual either confronts the stimuli (fight), runs away (flight), or remains motionless due to loss of hope to escape (freeze)
Spinal Cord makeup
Consists of two types of matter. White matter and Gray matter.
Myelinated axons that help to speed up the transmission of the message along the neuron.
Neuron cell bodies.
Voluntary responses such as when we perceive a potential danger and how we deliberately respond to it.
Controlled by the Somatic Nervous System
Involuntary functioning that help keep our bodies internal environment at a homeostatic state.
Controlled by the Autonomic Nervous System
An automatic response that is initiated by the neurons in the spinal cord rather than in the brain. sensory messages continue to the brain but the motor response occurs before the message is received.
monosynaptic reflex arc
sensory neuron fires directly onto the motor neuron to initiate a response without the use of an inter neuron.
polysynaptic reflex arc
Response that involves an interneuron connecting the affector neuron to the effector neuron.
Reflex arc Pathway
stimulus -> receptor ->sensory neuron -> interneuron -> motor neuron -> effector -> response.
An electrical impulse that is initiated by the Soma, which travels along the axon and changes the ion charge inside the neuron to positive and the ions outside the neuron to negative.
Communication between neurons
Neurotransmitters are released into the synapse from the terminal buttons of the presynaptic neuron, which are then received by the postsynaptic neuron.
A chemical messenger that is released by the presynaptic neuron into the synapse and finds the receptor on the postsynaptic neuron.
excite the next cell into firing
inhibit the next cell from firing
Most common excitatory neurotransmitter and is essential for memory and learning.
Excitatory neurotransmitter that is essential for motivation and motor movement.
most common inhibitory neurotransmitter that is essential for motor control and decreasing anxiety.
Inhibitory neurotransmitter that is essential for stabilising mood.
An imblance or deficiency in a particular type of neurotransmitter.
can be caused by substance abuse, diet, stress and genetics.
Treating Neurotransmitter interruptions
Treated through drugs and medication that can artificially replace the lost neurotransmitter.
- can lead to further suppression of the neurotransmitter.
Can lead to depression due to lack of drive and motivation.
Individuals suffer emotional disturbances which can lead to depression and schizophrenia.
Characterised by the progressive degeneration of the nervous system which can lead to tremors and muscle rigidity.
- low levels of dopamine causes movement problems.
- dopamine treatments can have short term effects and worsen the problem.
A psychological response to an internal or external source of tension that challenges a person's ability to cope and adapt to the stressor.
Short term and intense stress.
Long term and intense stress.
A positive response to stress.
A negative response to stress
Unimportant stressors, however can cause an accumulative effect on stress levels and affect health.
event that can cause significant changes in the course of our lives, that can be positive or negative. such as the death of a loved one.
Psychological impact of adaptation to a new culture or environment
An event that is extraordinarily stressful or disturbing for almost everyone who experiences it.
Natural disasters could be an example of a major stressor.
Physical Symptoms of Stress
Excessive alertness, exhaustion, disturbed sleep.
Cognitive Symptoms of Stress
poor concentration and memory, confusion, nightmares, intrusive thoughts.
Behavioural Symptoms of Stress
Avoidance of stimuli, social withdrawal, isolation, loss of interest.
Emotional Symptoms of Stress
Fear, detachment, depression, guilt, anger.
- Level of cortisol in bloodstream is used to measure levels of stress.
- increases energy supplies within the body to be able to cope with stressors.
- prolonged periods of high cortisol can lead to decreased immunity and increased susceptibility to illnesses.
General Adaptation Syndrome
shows stages that best describe the physiological impact of stress.
- Alarm Reaction Stage
- Resistance Stage
- Exhaustion Stage
Alarm Reaction (shock)
- Body acts as if it is injured, blood pressure drops and body temperature drops.
- Occurs when the individual first becomes aware of the stressor.
Alarm Reaction (Countershock)
- Sympathetic Nervous system is activated with a release of adrenaline that activates the Fight-Flight-Freeze response.
- Allows the individual to become more capable of dealing with the stressor.
Stage of Resistance
- Cortisol is released into the bloodstream and all unnecessary functions are shut down.
- this allows the individual to become more able to adapt to the needs of the stressor and be able to cope more efficiently.
Stage of Exhaustion
- If the stressor is not dealt with, the organism will enter exhaustion because of its inability to maintain the needs of resistance functioning.
- resources and immune system are depleted which leads to vulnerability to disease.
Strengths of GAS model
- Measures a predictable pattern that can be measured in all individuals.
- if stress is not prolonged, the stages are still experienced, therefore is tracks the patterns of different types of stress.
Limitations of GAS model
- Research was not conducted on humans.
- Assumes that everyone has the same, predictable responses to the stressor, therefore does not fully take into account individual differences.
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