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Germany - Initial Consolidation of Nazi Power 1933-1934
Terms in this set (26)
What happened on February 27th 1933?
Although it is generally accepted that a rouge Dutch Communist Marine Van der Lubbe was responsible for the Reichstag Fire, who did the Nazi Party blame it on?
The entire Communist community.
Why didn't the Nazis ban the Communist Party after the Reichstag Fire?
They needed a scapegoat and a target for their propaganda campaign.
What law was enacted as a result of the Reichstag Fire at Hitler's request and by use of Article 48?
The "Decree For the Protection of the People and the State"
Although it was sold to Hindenburg and the German people as an emergency act that would protect Germans from the inevitable communist putsch, what did the Decree For the Protection of the People and the State do?
took away civil liberties and basic human rights of the German people, restricted citizen's rights of free expression of opinion, free press, right of assembly, right of association. Violated the privacy of postal, telegraphic and telephonic communications, warrants for house searches, orders for confiscation and restrictions of property.
Very keen to consolidate his power, on 1st Feb 1933, Hitler asked Hindenburg to dissolve the Reichstag and hold an election for March 5th. How did Hitler prepare?
Hitler used an aggressive propaganda plan, taking over radio and media outlets, pushing their message of being the safest option for restoring Germany to the great country it once was.
Hitler quote over radio in advance of the March 5th election
"the National Government will therefore regard as its first and supreme task to restore to the German people the unity of mind and will".
What messages were Hitler and Goebbels trying to sell in their propaganda campaigns for the March 5th election?
Nazi Party would restore stability and national pride, and that a communist putsch was imminent.
Hitler instructed Goring (the Minister for the Interior of Prussia), to take control of what, meaning the Nazi's controlled 3/5 of the German Police Force and could sanction "legal" violence and deny assistance and protection to enemies of the state?
Prussian Police Force.
Why was the March election a disappointment to the Nazis?
Increased Reichstag seats to 288, but still did not have majority.
What did the Nazi Party do to increase their seats to 340, the majority, after the March election?
Aligned with the German National People's Party who had 52 seats.
In order to establish a legal dictatorship, Hitler needed control of at least 2/3 of the Reichstag. How did he achieve this?
He denounced the Communist Party by arresting the remaining 81 members who had not fled, and assumed their seats. Used violence and promises against other parties and their members.
What law (only able to be passed once Hitler won 2/3 of the Reichstag), permitted Hitler to gain full control of Germany by allowing him to make decisions and laws without the involvement of the Reichstag and the President, effectively destroying democracy in Germany and creating a dictatorship with Hitler as Dictator?
The Law for the Removal of the Distress of People and the State, aka, the Enabling Act.
Why did Goebbels (Minister of Propaganda and National Enlightenment, March 13, 1933) chose Potsdam as the location of the successful March 21st official opening of the new parliament, aka the Potsdam Ceremony?
To link the current regime with the glory of past historical figures, as Potsdam is an important place in German History.
With the passing of the Enabling Act, Hitler set about implementing new laws to ensure a totalitarian state of Nazi rule. What did he establish to achieve this ?
Synonyms of Gleichschaltung
coordination, Nazification, transform.
Who undertook most of the judicial and legal suppression in German society after Hitler's appointment? Why?
Judges, lawyers, police and officials who were already working. They respected Hitler for legally taking power and felt they were doing their national duty.
What year was The People's Court established? How quickly could the trials be over?
1934, 15 minutes.
Why was it essential for the Nazi's to have the support and control of the civil servants?
Civil servants made up approx. 1.6 million Germans.
What law removed all civil servants of Jewish descent?
The Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service, April 1933.
How did the Civil Service generally react to Nazification?
They were essentially a conservative body and had never accepted a republic or parliamentary system, so they all conformed and appreciated Nazification and Nazi legislation.
Most German workers supported left wing parties, but it was essential that the Nazi's had the support of the Working Class and could control the organisation of the labour. How did Hitler do this?
On May 1st, 1933, Hitler implemented the "May Day Holiday". The following day he abolished trade unions, and SA and police raided the unions and their leaders were arrested and sent to concentration camps. Organisations declared illegal. German Labour Front implemented.
As part of gleichschaltung, all German states had to to be brought under control so they couldn't oppose authority of the government. What law enforced the compulsory appointment of a Reich governor in each state government who ensured the Berlin government policies were being implemented?
the Law for the Coordination of the States with the Reich, April 1933.
Jan 1934, Hitler abolished state government.
Hitler vs Röhm, leader of the SA opposed his ideas, given and ultimatum by Hindenburg to replace the army with the SA.
Röhm had 3 million SA members, so was a tough opponent.
So Hitler imprisoned and shot Röhm and several senior SA leaders on 30 June 1934.
SS squads shots those who Hitler was suspicious of over the course of 4 days. 400 were shot, including Von Schleicher and Strasser, a Nazi with socialist views. The SA was now firmly under only Hitler's control. Many were glad the SA had been restrained.
= complete consolidation of power.
The Night of the Long Knives, June 30th 1934.
What law stated that the office of Chancellor and President were now combined into the one role of "Fuhrer", to be implemented once the President died, handing Hitler Hindenburg's presidential powers upon his death the next day?
the Law Concerning Sovereign Head of the German Reich, August 1st, 1934.
What happened on August 2nd, 1934 that made Hitler's powers absolute?
Hindenburg died, Hitler became Furher, the army swore an oath of allegiance personally to Adolf Hitler.
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