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Psychological Behaviour Science Exam: Learning
Terms in this set (44)
Examples of Sources of Thinking Errors include...
word of mouth (hearing is believing, catchy phrases, urban legends, confuse familiarity with accuracy etc), desire for easy answers, selective perception and memory, inferring causation from correlation, placebo effect, and exposure to biased sample.
In ______ Theory, which was particularly dominant in 18th century where religion had more power, mentally ill or criminals are considered sinners possessed by demons.
The ____ is a philosophical movement of the 18th century which stressed human reasoning over blind faith or obedience, encouraged scientific thinking and made possible rational and predictable explanation for behaviour.
_____ describes any belief system or methodology which tries to gain legitimacy by wearing the trappings of science, but fails to abide by the rigorous methodology and standards of evidence that are the marks of true science. Examples include astrology, phrenology, physiognomy and palmistry.
Suicide risk in depression increases when...
the person begins to improve (as they experiences a return of energy and have sufficient energy to carry out attempt).
____ is the phenomenon of perceiving a relationship between variables (typically people, events, or behaviors) even when no such relationship exists.
is a process by which experience produces a relatively enduring change in an organism's behaviour or capabilities.
The term capability highlights
'knowing how' versus 'doing'
is a decrease in the strength of a reflexive response to a repeated stimulus, which may be the simplest form of learning and occurs across species ranging from humans to dragonflies to sea snails
When you smell the aroma of pizza or freshly baked bread, your mouth automatically water or your stomach growl. These examples illustrate a learning process called classical conditioning, in which
an organism learns to associate two stimuli (e.g. a song and a pleasant event), such that one stimulus (the song) comes to elicit a reflexive response (feeling happy) that was originally elicited only by the other stimulus (the pleasant event).
Acquisition refers to
the period during which a response is being learned
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) is a stimulus
that elicits a reflexive or innate response (the UCR) without prior learning.
A unconditioned response is
a reflexive or innate response elicited by a stimulus (the UCS) without prior learning.
A conditioned stimulus is
a stimulus that, through association with a UCS, comes to elicit a conditioned response similar to the original UCR.
A conditioned response is
a response elicited by a conditioned stimulus.
When the UCS is intense and aversive—such as an electric shock or a traumatic event—conditioning may
require only one CS-UCS pairing.
Law of effect states that
in a given situation, a response followed by a satisfying consequence will become more likely to occur and vice versa.
Operant conditioning is
a type of learning in which behaviour is influenced by the consequences that follow it
Reinforcement occurs when
a response is strengthened by an event that follows it.
Punishment occurs when
a response is weakened by outcomes that follow it
Classical conditioning is
a form of learning whereby a conditioned stimulus becomes associated with an unrelated unconditioned stimulus, in order to produce a behavioral response known as a conditioned response
The key difference between classical conditioning and operant conditioning is that
the former involves learning the relation between two stimuli, whereas the latter involves learning the relation between a response and a stimulus
A discriminative stimulus is a type of stimulus that
is used consistently to gain a specific response and that increases the possibility that the desired response will occur
Primary reinforcers are
stimuli, such as food and water, that an organism naturally finds reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs
Secondary (conditioned) reinforcers are
stimuli that acquire reinforcing properties through their association with primary reinforcers
Positive reinforcement occurs
when a response is strengthened by the subsequent presentation of a stimulus
Negative reinforcement is
a response is strengthened by the subsequent removal (or avoidance) of an aversive stimulus
The difference between punishment and negative reinforcement is that
punishment weakens a response while reinforcement—whether positive or negative—strengthens a response (or maintains it once it has reached full strength)
Escape behaviour is referred to as
behaviour that terminates an aversive situation
Avoidance behaviour is
when a response prevents the aversive situation from occurring
Operant extinction is ____ because it is no longer reinforced
the weakening and eventual disappearance of a response
Operant generalisation is when
an operant response occurs to a new antecedent stimulus or situation that is similar to the original one.
Operant discrimination means
that an operant response will occur to one antecedent stimulus but not to another
Stimulus control can be seen in
the occurrence of operant behaviour in response to a discriminative stimuli
Continuous reinforcement is a type of Schedule of Reinforcement where
every correct response is reinforced every single time
Partial (intermittent) reinforcement is a type of Schedule of Reinforcement in which
a particular response is only reinforced at certain intervals or ratio of time, instead of reinforcing the behavior every single time
On a fixed-ratio (FR) schedule,
a reinforcer is given after a fixed number of responses. For example, FR-3 means that reinforcement occurs after every third response, regardless of how long it takes for those responses to occur.
On variable-ratio (VR) schedule,
a reinforcer is given after a variable number of responses, all centred around an average
On a fixed-interval (FI) schedule,
a response is reinforced when it occurs after a fixed time since the last reinforcer
fixed-ratio schedules and variable-ratio schedules _____, while fixed-interval schedules ______.
produce a high rate of responding/ responding slows or ceases after each reinforcer, and becomes more frequent as the time for the next reinforcer draws near
observational learning is
the learning that occurs by observing the behaviour of a model
Humans' capacity to learn by observation, which is also called___, far outstrips that of other creatures. It helps us
modelling/ bypass the potentially time-consuming and dangerous process of trial and error
Social-cognitive theory, also known by its former name social-learning theory emphasizes that
people learn by observing the behaviour of models and acquiring the belief that they can produce behaviours to influence events in their lives
self-efficacy, which represents____, is a key motivational factor in observational learning.
people's belief that they have the capability to perform behaviours that will produce a desired outcome
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