Primary sensory areas receive the ______ _______________ from the receptors and sensory pathways
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V2-V5 association areas have two output streams, dorsal (________ is it?) and ventral (________ is it?)where, whatLesion to VI will lead to _________ _________ defects. For each VI, the loss is in the ___________ visual fieldvisual field, contralateralIf VI damage is bilateral, then it can lead to ___________ ____________ (eyes ______ _____________ but you can't analyse or create a picture of what it is)cortical blindness, are workingLesions to V2-V5 association areas lead to a loss of a ____________ __________ in the analysis eg. colour analysis, _____ movement in the visual field, inability to _______ visual information or analyse different elements of the visual field ______________.specific element, 3D, use, togetherClinical example of lesions to V2-V5 association areas : inability to recognise objects by _________ only, inability to use visual stimuli to _____________ ________________, visual ___________, can describe ___________ objects but not the entire picturevision, guide behaviour, illusions, specificS1 or Primary somatosensory cortex located in _____________________post central sulcusS1 function = _______________ finer, more critical grades of sensation and recognising _______________ eg. sharp, dull, strong, weakdiscriminating, intensitySecondary somatosensory cortex or S2 is located in thesuperior lip of the lateral fissureFunctions of S2 include: ________, integration of information ______________, learning, _____________ and emotional responsespain, bilaterally, memoryLesion to S1 or S2 leads to loss of ___________ sense and ___________ movement (proprioception), topognosia which is loss of _________________ of tactile, thermal and noxious stimuli, astereognosis which is the inability to ____________ objects by active ___________, agraphesthesia which is difficulty recognising a written ________________________________________, loss of ______________ discrimination, high sensory ________________position, passive, localisation, identify, touch, number or letter traced on the skin after parietal damage, two-point, thresholdsMain regions of somatosensory association areas are ______________ and _____________ _______________ lobules.superior, inferior parietal____________ parietal lobule is area 5 and 7. It's important for integration of sensations relative to _______ _____________ and visual ( ___________ stream) to understand orientation in _________. Analysis is sent to motor cortex for _______________________________. Output also sent to __________ regions and _______________ __________ to influence ____________ and attentionsuperior, body position, dorsal, space, visuo-motor coordination, limbic, prefrontal cortex, emotionsLesion of SUPERIOR PARIETAL LOBE (somatosensory association area) often leads to apraxia, which is the inability to _________ ________________ correctly.plan movementInferior parietal lobules have ______________ and ____________________ hemispheresdominant, non-dominantDominant hemisphere of inferior parietal lobule is usually the _______ side, which is associated with _______________, maths calculations, ____________, writing, understanding of _____________. One of the last areas of the brain to develop in childhoodleft, language, reading, symbolsLesion to the dominant hemisphere of inferior parietal lobule results in difficulty distinguishing between _________ & _____________, loss of ability to ____________ and ________ numbers & letters, ____________ which is the loss of ability to communicate through ____________ (from simple spelling errors to whole word ______________ ), __________ which is the inability to understand written language and __________ which is difficulty finding the names for thingsleft, right, understand, order, agraphia, writing, substitution, alexia, anomiaNon-dominant hemispheres of the inferior parietal lobule is usually the ______ side, associated with ___________________ orientation, ______ - ________ cognitive functions eg. tone & ___________.right, visuo-spatial, non-verbal, sarcasmLesions of non-dominant hemisphere of inferior parietal lobule leads to ____________ due to loss of spatial understanding eg. construction apraxia which is inability to _______ or _____________ in 2D or 3D / dressing apraxia, __________________ disorientation, contralateral ____________apraxia, draw, construct, topographical, neglectTemporal lobe contains primary AND association _________ areas, is an _______________ cortex (smell perception)auditory___________ temporal lobe contains the hippocampus which is critical for ________ formation and the ___________, a region which processes emotionMedial, memory, amygdalaSUPERIOR temporal gyrus contain the the PRIMARY and SECONDARY auditory areas. On the ______ is the interpretation of sounds related to _________. On the _________ is interpretation of melody, pitch & intensity.left, words, rightMIDDLE and INFERIOR temporal gyri are ASSOCIATION AUDITORY areas related to _____________ and high level ___________ ________________. eg. Wernicke's area which is responsible for the ______________ of language.language, visual recognition, comprehensionLesions of the auditory cortex - it's a __________ lesion, as A1 receives input from both ears. Will not result in deafness on one side but can lead to increased auditory ______________ or cause auditory _________________.unilateral, threshold, hallucinationsLesions to the AUDITORY ASSOCIATION areas on the DOMINANT side - reduced capacity to understand _________ words or numbers ie. when sounds are distorted or presented fast, loss of ____________ aspect of sounds (reading, writing music)spoken, semanticLesions to the AUDITORY ASSOCIATION areas on the NON-DOMINANT side lead to all noises sounding _____________, loss of pitch & ____________ recognition, loss of familiar _________________the same, intensity, melodiesNON-AUDITORY lesions can lead to disturbance of ________ perception, failure of learning from _________ presented material (connection between vision and learning is disrupted) (Wernicke's aphasia)time, visuallyMEDIAL SURFACE of the temporal lobe contain the uncus which is the primary __________ area, hippocampus and amygdala (controls emotion & fear). These regions together with the _______________ gyrus from the limbic lobeolfactory, cingulateBilateral lesion of hippocampus leads to ________________ __________ which is inability to form new memories, hippocampus is the first area to degenerate in Alzheimer's diseaseanterograde amnesiaBilateral lesions of the amygdala lead to loss of ________ response, abnormal __________ behaviour and _______________ flat responses. Dysfunction of the amygdala leads to many fear or emotional related disorders.fear, sexual, emotionalInsula lobe is important for v____________ s_______________ functions (part of limbic system, emotions) Also motor planning for v________________ muscles and singing Abdominal, thoracic visceral Analysis of pain signals: pain perception, emotional component of painvisceral sensory, vocalisationFrontal lobe plans and e____________ motor plans and movements (creating a response) The motor cortex includes the Primary motor cortex (M1), premotor and s_________________ motor and frontal e_____ __________, BROCA'S AREA and PREFRONTAL cortexexecutes, supplementary, eye fieldUpper motor neurons controlling v______________ movement in the c____________________ face and body are located in M1 (primary motor cortex). In the motor homunculus, more than half of the cortex is devoted to the muscles of the h________ and speechvoluntary, contralateral, handLesion to primary motor cortex leads to loss of ability to generate v_______________ movement on the o______________ side of the face / bodyvoluntary, oppositeMotor association areas are for p____________ and a______________. Firstly, these areas make a 'motor image' of the total muscle movements that is required. Specific neurons are related to specific plans, stimulating these neurons leads to activation of the full plan, not just specific muscles. Lesion to this area results in inability to plan complex movements, which is called a__________planning, analysis, apraxia________________ area is responsible for the motor guidance of movement and control of p_____________ and trunk musclespremotor, proximal___________________ motor area is responsible for the planning of more distal movements eg. when using handsSupplementaryBroca's area allows production of smooth s____________. Lesions will lead to Broca's aphasia, a type of aphasia characterised by laboured speech and the use of single n_________ instead of full sentences, r_________ speech musclesspeech, nouns, rigidFrontal eye field regulates v______________ movements of the e____ to allow looking in a specific direction, follow a moving object and g__________voluntary, eye, gazingPrefrontal cortex plans complex, cognitive b______________. It controls a set of executive functions (personality) including: a______________, decision-making, predicting future c__________________ of behaviours, i______________ (of wrong behaviour), social skills. Lesions to this area would lead to inappropriate behaviour, loss of flexibility in thinking & behaviour, reduced cognitive capacity, unstable e______________behaviour, attention, consequences, inhibition, emotionsCommissural white matter connects e_______________ areas of the 2 hemispheres Association white matter connects region within the _________ hemisphere Projection fibres connect the cerebral cortex with OTHER areas of the CNS eg. diencephalon. The fibres descend through the c_________ r____________ (like a radiating crown)equivalent, sameProjection fibres pass through a collection of subcortical gray nuclei is called the b________ nuclei and the d____________________ to get to the brainstem and spinal cord. Once they enter this area, the structure is called internal c___________.basal, diencephalonCorpus callosum is the biggest c_________________ structure with around 250 million myelinated fibres connecting h_______________ regions of the cerebral cortex. Important for proper combined analysis. Damage to the corpus callosum causes d_________________ syndrome (between the two hemispheres) --> demyelination diseases, tumour, strokes, trauma, developmental disorderscommissural, disconnectionVENTRICULAR SYSTEM (direction of flow): Two lateral ventricles Inter-________________ foramen Third ventricle Cerebral ______________ Fourth ventricleventricular, aqueductDIENCEPHALONThe diencephalon consists of four structures: thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, s__________________subthalamusThe structures of the diencephalon effectively enclose the ____________ ventriclethirdEpithalamus contains the pineal gland (secretes the hormone m______________ involved in regulating c______________ rhythms & sleep) and surrounding neural tissuemelatonin, circadianThe thalamus is an egg shaped mass of g_______ matter. It is found on each side of the t_________ ventricle and held together by a midline commissure called the thalamic adhesiongray, thirdCortical feedback to the thalamus plays a role in g___________ information that reaches the cerebral cortex, contributes to SELECTIVE attentiongatingFour function groups of the thalamus include: a__________, m________, p_____________ & v___________anterior, medial, posterior, ventralThe ventral group of the thalamus acts as a relay region for s__________ (from the dorsal column, spinothalamic, trigeminal and taste pathways) and m__________ pathways (from the cerebellum and basal ganglia to the motor cortex regions)sensory, motorThe medial geniculate nucleus relays ______________ information. The lateral geniculate body relays __________auditory, visionA____________ and l___________ nuclei relay information within the l__________ system, regulating emotional tone and memoryanterior, lateral, limbicThese two regions are associated with the cortex association areas: 1. The medial group is associated with the p_______________ cortex. Lesion results in behavioural issues etc. 2. The pulvinar projects into the posterior parietal-______________ association areas and is involved in gating, attention and p______________ of s__________ inputprefrontal, temporal, perception, sensoryFunction of the thalamus: > great s____________ relay station > allows s_______________ perception for some sensations > integrating centre for s________ and arousal > concerned with recent m__________ and emotion > concerned with l______________ function > genesis of synchronisation of EEG (electroencephalography) > acting as a link between basal ganglia and cerebellum within cortex as part of the m________ loopsensory, subcortical, sleep, memory, language, motorThe hypothalamus is located b________ the thalamus, capping the brainstem, it's the MAIN VITAL & VISCERAL control centre of the body, vitally important to overall body h__________________below, homeostasisFunctions of the hypothalamus: > regulation of endocrine system by producing hormones that act on other endocrine g_________ > regulation of A_____ > body t__________________ regulation > regulation of f______ and water intake > emotion & behaviour > control of circadian rhythmsglands, ANS, temperature, foodThe i___________________ is a stalk of the hypothalamic tissue connecting the p____________ gland to the base of the hypothalamusinfundibulum, pituitaryThe hypothalamus regulates i_________________ nervous activity by controlling the activity of a____________ centres in the brainstem and spinal cordinvoluntary, autonomicThe hypothalamus influences blood pressure, rate and force of heart c_____________, motility of digestive system, r___________________ rate and depth, secretion of sweat and salivary g_________. The hypothalamus acts as the 'body's t_______________' (receives input from thermoreceptors located in other parts of the brain as well as body peripherycontraction, respiratory, glands, thermostatRegion in the __________ hypothalamus is the hunger centre. When stimulated, leads to feeling of hunger and i___________ in food intake. Bilateral lesions leads to _____________.lateral, increase, anorexiaRegion in the ___________ hypothalamus is the satiety centre. Stimulation ____________ food intake and lesions would lead to extreme _____________medial, reduces, obesityWhen body fluids become too concentrated, hypothalamic neurons called ___________________ are activated. Osmoreceptors in lateral hypothalamus activates sensation of t_________. ADH produced by hypothalamus and secreted by pituitary causes water r______________ by the kidney.osmoreceptors, thirst retentionThe hypothalamus has a large number of connections with the p______________ cortex, limbic system, brain regions that process emotions and behaviour eg. fear, pleasure, rage etc. Lesions to these regions would lead to l_______ of these behaviours. The hypothalamus acts through the _______ to initiate most physical expressions of emotions eg. pounding heart, elevated blood pressure, sweating, dry mouth, pallorprefrontal, lack, ANSIn the somatic nervous system, the single efferent neuron is always ________________excitatoryIn the _____________ nervous system, there are _____________ efferent neurons which can be excitatory OR inhibitoryThe autonomic nervous system is controlled by __________________ centres in the brain eg. pons, hypothalamus, medulla oblongatahomeostaticThe somatic nervous system is controlled by the ________________cerebrumWhen the sympathetic division is active, blood is diverted from your _____________ system to _____________ muscledigestive, skeletalWhen the sympathetic division is active, our pupils will be _____________dilatedSweat glands and blood vessel smooth muscle are only innervated by sympathetic NS and rely strictly on up-down control (change in signal _______)rateThe preganglionic neuron's cell body is located in the brain / __________ _______ (going towards ____________)spinal cordThe postganglionic neuron's cell body is in an autonomic ganglion (sending impulses towards __________ ________)target organThe difference between the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions is the ___________ of the postganglionic and preganglionic neurons!locationBOTH pre and postganglionic neurons in the PARASYMPATHETIC division release ____________________acetylcholineThe ___________________ neuron in the SYMPATHETIC division releases acetylcholinepreganglionicAdrenaline (norepinephrine, epinephrine) is released by the postganglionic neuron to the target organ in the _________________ divisionsympatheticSympathetic _______________ neurons have a ____________________ (T1-L2) origin and the ganglia is close to the ___________ ________preganglionic, thoraco-lumbar, spinal cordParasympathetic preganglionic neurons are located in the _______________ and _________ _______________ _______ and the preganglionic fibres emerge in selected cranial nerves ( ____ ____ ____ ____ ) and sacral spinal nerves 2-4 (cranio-sacral origin)brainstem, sacral spinal cord, III, VII, IX, XParasympathetic ganglia are located very close to, or in the wall of the ______________ ________visceral organsThe ____________ can influence the activity of the hypothalamus, leading to ______________ changes in the ANS activitycortex, consciousBlocking the adrenaline receptor would block _________________ activity eg. __________________sympathetic, beta blockers__________________ the adrenaline receptor would mimic the sympathetic system and increase its effect eg. ______________stimulating, ventolinBlocking the acetylcholine synapse would ____________ ___________________ activity (atropine)reduce parasympatheticStimulating the acetylcholine synapse would _____________ parasympathetic activityincreaseThe sympathetic system ____________ the bladder (no peeing during fight/flight)relaxesThe parasympathetic division _____________ the bladdercontractsSOMATOSENSORY SYSTEMSModality refers to the _______ of stimulus that activates sensory receptorstypeIntensity refers to the ______________ of the stimulusstrengthTwo-point discrimination: Tips of fingers: approx. ___mm Forearm: _____mm5, 40The more proximal to the body, the __________ the receptive fieldlargerNeural codes are patterns of _________ ________________ that 'code' intensity & duration of stimulusaction potentialsMuscle spindle primary --> muscle ____________ & __________length, speedMuscle spindle secondary --> muscle ____________stretchGolgi tendon organ --> muscle ________________contractionJoint capsule mechanoreceptor --> joint __________angleConscious proprioception / _______________ - perception of joint position, direction & velocity of joint movementskinesthesiaSubcutaneous receptors beneath both glabrous and hairy skin include _______________ ___________ and _____________ _____________.Pacinian corpuscles, Ruffini endingsThe receptors of glabrous skin are _______________ ______________, Merkel's receptors and bare/free nerve endingsMeissner's corpusclesThe receptors of hairy skin are _______ _____________, Merkel's receptors (having slightly different organisation than their counterparts in glabrous skin) and bare/free nerve endingshair receptorsThe medial part of the dorsal funiculus is fasciculus ________________gracilis (below T6)The lateral part of the dorsal funiculus os fasciculus _______________cuneatus (from T6 above)The ___________________ pathway provides conscious sensations of pain and temperature. It consists of the lateral and anterior spinothalamic tractsanterolateralThe ___________________ pathway consists of the posterior and anterior spinocerebellar tractsspinocerebellarThe posterior / dorsal column pathway consists of fasciculus cuneatus and gracilisIn the anterolateral pathway, the 1st order sensory neurons synapse on 2nd order neurons within posteror _______ _________ (within spinal cord)gray hornsThe spinocerebellar pathway provides information about the IPSILATERAL side of the bodySpinocerebellar pathway - proprioceptive information about position of skeletal muscles, tendons & joints)The POSTERIOR spinocerebellar tracts contains tracts that DO NOT cross over to the ____________ side of the spinal cord. Axons reach cerebellar cortex via the INFERIOR CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLE of that same sideoppositeThe ANTERIOR spinocerebellar tracts are dominated by axons that HAVE ______________ over to the opposite side of spinal cord. Sensations reach the cerebellar cortex via SUPERIOR CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLEcrossedABILITY TO DETERMINE LOCATION OF STIMULUS: depends on the projection of information from the thalamus to the primary _________ _________sensory cortexProportions of sensory homunculus are distorted as the area of sensory cortex devoted to the particular body region is NOT proportional to the region's SIZE, but to the NUMBER of sensory ______________ it containsreceptorsWarmth receptors are MOST ACTIVE at ____ degrees C45Cold receptors are MOST ACTIVE at ____ degrees C25At the normal skin temperature of 34 degrees C, _________ receptors are more active than warm receptorscoldA alpha and A beta nociceptors DO NOT elicit sensation of pain. Activation of A delta fibres results in tingling sensation. Increased stimulus intensity will activate slow-conducting Type ____ fibre axons (duller, longer-lasting sensation of pain, unmyelinated 2m/s)CThe _________ ________________ nucleus receives information about deep/crude touch, pain and temperature from the ipsilateral face (made of 3 subnuclei) 1. Subnucleus oralis is associated with transmission of discriminative tactile sense from the ____________ region 2. Subnucleus interpolaris is associated with transmission of tactile sense, as well as _________ pain 3. Subnucleus caudalis is associated with transmission of nociception and thermal sensations from the ________spinal trigeminal, orofacial, dental, headThe mesencephalic nucleus is involved with _________________ of the faceproprioceptionThe principal sensory nucleus is involved with discriminative sensation and light touch of the _______ AS WELL AS conscious proprioception of the _________face, jaw_______________________ ________ is an important nociceptive areaPeriaqueductal grey