Some literacy skills that children develop include: p________________ awareness (rhyming, syllable awareness, blending etc.), print awareness (ability to ___________ words), sound-letter recognition etc.
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Language variations: Mode refers to the ____________ we use to communicate eg. spoken, signed, visual written. Register refers to the level of _______________ used. Style refers to the ________ of words and structure we use eg. professional jargon, academic, narrative. Code switching refers to switching between _______________ or dialects
The _________________ theory is related to skills developed through observation, imitation and modelling. The psycholinguistic theory is related to biologically programmed or innate skills activated by the linguistic ________________. The social psychological theory is about how skills are scaffolded and learning is supported through ___________________.
Cognitive development according to Piaget has 4 stages:
1. sensorimotor (0-2 yrs) - object _____________ developed here
2. pre-operational (2-7 yrs) - egocentric, parallel to pretend play
3. concrete operational (7-11 yrs) - organised rational thinking , _____________ thinking, problem solving
4. formal operational (12 - adulthood) - express thoughts and ideas, debate
Development of language in phases: 3. Preschooler Development (3-4 yrs) - speech is mostly intelligible by ___ years, MLU increases, complex sentences, story-telling, receptive language (Wh questions & multiple part instructions), pre-literacy eg. ____________ , sound letter recognition etc.5, rhymingDevelopment of language in phases: 4. School Aged Development (5-12 yrs0 - intelligible, _____________ words, complex expressive language, receptive language (synonyms, homonyms, non-___________ language, complex and sequenced instructions, inferencing), reading, understanding and writing a range of text typesmultisyllabic, literalAdolescent Development (13-19 yrs) - expressive language (expanding complex language, s__________, vocabulary, changing style and register for audience, sarcasm!), receptive language (f_____________ language, problem solving, complex subject vocabulary), literacy (adapting writing for an audience)syntax, figurativeINFANT / TODDLER DEVELOPMENTVocal development at 0-2 months: pitch shifts, fussing & discomfort, vegetative sounds, v________-like soundsvowelVocal development at 2-4 months - predominantly vowels with early consonants, c_________, 'mmmm' pleasure soundscooingVocal development at 4-6 months: CV production, imitation of sounds back and forth (vocal ______________ ), laughing, _________ sounds predominant, extreme pitch glidesturn-taking, frontVocal development at 6-10 months: ________________ babble, first words may be reported at 10m, exclamations, variation in intonation contoursreduplicatedVocal development at 10-12 months: v_________________ babble, variety of CV and CVC combinations, approximations of meaningful words, prosody (_____________) matching closer to adult formvariegated, intonationCommunicative intention is the s______________ of intent to communicate. Infants communicate with others long before they use words eg. e_____ ____________, p___________ & c____________signalling, eye gazing, pointing, cryingDevelopment of communicative intention: 1. General: pre-intentional forms eg. looking --> looking & flapping --> looking between you and the toy, intentional forms eg. p__________ and g____________ (8mths) --> vocalising --> v______________ (12-18mths)pointing, gesturing, verbalisingEarly types (8-18mths) of communicative intention include: r________________ , c_______________, p________________requesting, commenting, protestingAdvanced types (18-24mths) of communicative intention include: r_____________ _____ _______________, a_______________ & a________________request for information, acknowledging, answeringHow can a child request in a non-verbal way? (list 2) How can a child comment in a non-verbal way? (list 2) How can a child request for information non-verbally? (list 2) How can a child acknowledge in a non-verbal way?pointing, making sounds clapping, smiling (or frowning) gestures, eg. "Where's the ball?" nods or eg. gets the ball when you ask for itPRESCHOOLER DEVELOPMENTPhonetic Development: Stops eg. d, p, b, t, k, g are usually learnt first, at around 2;6 - _____ years of age. Fricatives and affricates are more complex. eg. 'th' is learnt 7;0 - 8;0 years+. Vowels are learnt fairly early on.3;0Common phonological processes / patterns of error: 2;0-2;6 years: r__________________ 3;0-3;6 years: f____________ eg. cat --> tat, s___________ eg. fish --> bish, v__________ eg. cow --> gow, f_______ _____________ _____________ eg. dog --> doreduplication, fronting, stopping, voicing, final consonant deletionCommon phonological processes / patterns of error: 3;6-4;0 years: c___________ __________________ eg. fly --> fwy, w______ ____________ _____________ eg. crocodile --> crocdile, c_________ ______________ eg. play --> pay 5;0 years: s___________ (sh, ch, j) eg. shoe --> do, g____________ ____ _____________ eg. run --> wun 5;6 years: d___________________ eg. chip --> shipcluster simplification, weak syllable deletion, cluster reduction stopping, gliding of liquids deaffricationPreschoolers - Expressive Language Stage II (2;4 - 3;0) - using p_________ __________________ (-ing verbs), prepositions, regular plurals Stage III (3;0 - 3;6) - using irregular past tense, possessive's, __________________ copula "Is it Alison?" Stage IV (3;4 - 3;10) - using a___________, regular past tense, regular third person singular Stage V (3;6 - 4;4+) - using irregular third person singular eg. He does/has, uncontracted auxiliary "ARE they swimming?", contractible ___________ and ___________ eg. They're, He'spresent progressive, uncontracted articles, copula, auxiliaryPreschoolers PRAGMATICS Development - Turn taking improves, t______________ of ________, social p_________________, metalinguistic skills (thinking and talking about _______________)theory of mind, politeness, languagePreschoolers OTHER AREAS Development: syntax (simple sentences to c_______________), comprehension, memory, pre-_____________ eg. rhyming, print & phonological awareness, letter knowledgeconjunctions, literacyDevelopmental Stages (LARSP related) Stage I (0;9 - 1;6) - nouns, verbs Stage II (1;6 - 2;0) - two element clauses: SV Stage III (2;0 - 2;6) - three element clauses SVO Stage IV (2;6 - 3;0) - four element clauses SVOA Stage V (3;0 - 3;6) - clause sequence and c____________________ Stage VI (3;6 - 4;0) Stage VII (4;6 - ) - sentence connectivity using adverbials; 'actually' 'if I'connectivitySCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN DEVELOPMENTNSW Syllabus Outcomes for ENGLISH: Early Stage 1 (Kindy) - emerging skills of group _________________ (informal and guided activities) Yr 1 & 2 - considers how own communication is ______________ in different situations Yr 3 & 4 - adopting a range of r_______ in group, classroom, school, community contexts Yr 5 & 6 - communicates for variety of audiences, increasingly c______________ topics, ideas, language forms & featuresinteraction adjusted roles challengingNSW Syllabus Outcomes for WRITTEN LANGUAGE: Kindy - composes s_________ texts to convey an idea or message, most lower and upper case letters, uses digital tech Yr 1 & 2 - composes & reviews a small range of simple texts for a variety of p__________ on familiar topics for known readers / viewers, using letters of consistent size & slope, uses digital tech Yr 3 & 4 - composes & reviews a range a texts that are more d________________, effective handwriting & publishes texts using digital technologies Yr 5 & 6 - composes, edits and presents well-s_______________ & coherent textssimple purposes demanding structuredNSW Syllabus Outcomes for MATHEMATICS: Early stage 1: Communicating - describes mathematical situation using everyday & some mathematical l______________, informal recordings Problem Solving - uses objects, actions, t_______________ and/or trial & error to explore mathematical problems Reasoning - uses concrete materials and/or p______________ representations to support conclusionslanguage technology pictorialADOLESCENT COMMUNICATION3 KEY POINTS for INFANCY COMMUNICATIVE INTENTION: > variegated babbling (with i______________ ) 8-9 mths > reduplicated babbling > communicative intention (eyeballing what they want)intonation3 KEY POINTS for TODDLERS: > more i__________________ speech > gestures decreasing compared to v________________ > s_____________ relations - wide range of vocabularyintelligible vocalisation semantic3 KEY POINTS for PRESCHOOL > t________ of mind > turn-taking > social p______________theory politeness3 KEY POINTS for SCHOOL-AGED > more advanced l_____________ in eg. maths problem solving > ability to a________ __________________ across different contexts / settings > ______ level language eg. synonyms, non-literal languagelanguage adjust communication highSchool-aged years is centred around friends, structure and ___________________ teaching Adolescent years is centred around m_______________ by content (what interests us), identity & future, responsibilitydevelopmental motivationFrom school-aged to adolescence, both p___________ and i____________________ increasesprivacy independenceCommunication in ADOLESCENCE: > Language: form (production & understanding of sentences), content (meaningful vocabulary), use (pr______________) > Literacy: genres (text types), spelling (decode new vocabulary), reading (different text types) > Variation: style (f________________), register (variations in language for different settings)pragmatics, formalityHIGHER LEVEL LANGUAGE SKILLS: >P__________________ - interpret meaning and write in your own words >Reasoning - providing a solution to an issue after looking at the factors >Cause & Effect - ability to see r________________ between things; problem solving, reasoning etc. >Inferring - interpret, analyse, process & explain information not explicitly explained >Figurative Language - use of similes, idioms, metaphors etc. >Theory of Mindparaphrasing relationshipFACTORS AFFECTING COMM. HEALTH & PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT - prematurity - unwell in utero eg. measles, CMV, cytomegalovirus - trauma - head injury, stroke - neurological eg. stuttering - sensory eg. hearingFACTORS AFFECTING COMM. ENVIRONMENT - input from parents ie. maternal education (model) - siblings - trauma / abuse - learning more than one languageFACTORS AFFECTING COMM. OTHER - cognitive capacity: IQ below 85 - gender: more males than females have communication disorders - motivation - culturalOVERLYING FACTORS AFFECTING COMM. - age at onset - severity or degree of issue / disorder, impact of impairment - speed of degenerative disorder - access to services - spontaneous recoveryHIGHER LEVEL LANGUAGE SKILLS - advanced vocabulary - understanding word relationships - paraphrasing - reasoning; determining cause & effect - making inferences - figurative language and - theory of mindCBOS ELEMENTS FOR SPEECH PATHOLOGISTS 1. Assessment - investigate and document 2. Analysis & Interpretation - identify gaps - determine diagnosis & possible outcomes 3. Implementation of Speech Pathology Practice - establish rapport & facilitate participation in intervention - document progress and changesEMERGENT LITERACY - oral language (narrative skills) - emergent reading & writing - sound letter recognition - phonological awarenessPHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS - rhyme - alliteration - counting & deleting syllables - sound letter recognition - sound manipulationVocabulary at ____ months predicted early literacy skills19Children with strong oral narrative skills at start of school entry had strong __________ _________________ 10 years laterreading comprehensionAT RISK OF LITERACY ISSUES: - hearing loss - neurological / developmental issues - environmental input ie. _____________ vocabulary - speech sound disorders in early years - developmental language disordersmaternalOngoing SSD & DLD impacts on assess to ___________________. Early intervention & education - Beware of risk factors - Health promotion - Education regarding link between language + literacy Assessment - ensure any child referred for literacy issues has a comprehensive speech, language and literacy a__________________ to gain a broad picture of the child's skills, should be standardised testing Intervention - early intervention - develop narrative skills of young children - teach emergent or pre-literacy skills where age appropriate - work with children who have ongoing DLD and SSD - work with teachers to provide best practice intervention in classroom - teach reading, writing & spelling to children with literacy difficulties (usually __________ practice)curriculum, assessment, practiceNormal range for percentile rank is 16 to _____84Normal range for standard score is 85 to ______115Randomised controlled trials are where participants are randomly assigned to a treatment. Systematic reviews is where someone searches many databases, evaluating gaps and s___________ of the research. Strong evidence combinedstrengthsWhy rate the evidence? We need to examine: - the scientific __________ of the study - the __________ of the evidence - the clinical _________________rigour quality significanceEvaluating Evidence > Is the question clearly stated? > What level of evidence? are the results v_________ and can it be r__________? > Are the patients and t_____________ fully described? Can you repeat it? > Randomisation, blinding? > E________ treatment? > What outcome measures (tool used to assess patient's current status) were used? > What are the results and are they clinically significant? E__________ size? What is the relevance of the effect?valid, repeated, techniques, equal, effectWorking with families who are Culturally & Linguistically Diverse > What is their first language? Is English their second language? > Do you need an interpreter? > How can you empower them to make informed decisions?Family-Centred Practice is culturally s_____________, i____________ & reciprocal, recognising and respecting each other's knowledge and expertise, involvement is i____________________, flexible, coordinated & r_______________sensitive, inclusive, individualised, responsiveCultural sensitivity is appreciating that there are d_______________ among culturesdifferencesCultural competence is being s_________ in understanding the i__________________ among members of the culture on their own termsskilled, interactionHow do you strive to provide culturally safe service? > Seek CULTURAL KNOWLEDGE > show RESPECT, ask for PERMISSION > Demonstrate RECIPROCITY: learning, services given & taken > Engage COMMUNITY accompaniment - find allies, colleagues, mentors in community of practiceMaintaining engagement > consultation > NEGOTIATE GOALS, roles, responsibilities > work as a partnership > shared problem solving, knowledge, experience > teach and be taught > capacity buildContinuum of Supervision / Training STAGE: Evaluation / Feedback --> Transitional --> Self Supervision SUPERVISORY ROLE: Direct Active --> Collaborative --> Consultative SUPERVISEE (one who is supervised): Dependence Passive --> Independence ActiveComponents of Family Centred Practice: 1. Family is the focus - meet the needs of the child in context of the family, improve parenting confidence 2. Family choice in decision-making 3. Strengths-based service - involves professionals seeing a family's skills and working with them to further develop these skills 4. Collaborative family-professional relationship 5. Individualised service: services provided to meet the needs of the family eg. altering service delivery - offering servicesRELATIONAL PRACTICES in Family Centred Practice > Good clinical skills (empathy, listening, respect, non-judgmental etc.) > Professional beliefs & attitudes toward families (parenting & capabilities) PARTICIPATORY PRACTICES > Individualised, flexible & responsive to family concerns & needs > Families ACTIVELY involved in decision-making: actions to achieve goals & outcomes, collaboration