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How many types of clause element are there?
There are 5 types of clause element: subject, verb, object, complement, adverbials. Each has a different function and site (position within the clause).
You can check which part of the clause is a subject by asking...
You can check which part of the clause is a subject by asking 'who?' or 'what?' is responsible for the action or process of the verb.
Position of the subject in the clause - statement
In a statement the subject usually precedes the verb. (The whole family) went to town.
Position of the subject in the clause - question
In a question, the subject usually follows the auxiliary verb: Did (the girl) go to town?
Effect of the subject on the verb
The subject dictates the form of the verb: (I) go to town. (The old lady) goes to town.
Effect of the subject on the object or complement
The subject sometimes controls the form of the object or complement in a sentence: (She) cut herself. (They) cut themselves.
Verbs cannot be omitted except in...
Verbs cannot be omitted except in a minor sentence, eg. Like father, like son.
Only a verb phrase can fill the verb of a clause.
I SHOULD GO to town.
You can check which part of the clause is in the direct object site by asking 'who?' or 'what?' is affected by the action or process of the verb.
The dog buried (the bone) - Od
You can check whether an object is indirect by placing it after the direct object and putting 'to' before it.
The child gave her friend (Oi) a present (Od). The child gave (a present)Od (to her friend)Oi
The complement (C) gives extra information about the subject (Cs) or about the object (Co)
The sun was (bright)Cs. The teacher considered his pupil (a genius)Co.
Kinds of complement can be...
The complement can be an adjective phrase, a noun phrase, a pronoun, a numeral or a clause.
The musician was (excellent).Cs - AdjP
The man thought the wine (a bargain)Co - NP
The book is (his)Cs - pron
The old lady was (ninety)Cs - num
This field is (where the battle took place)Cs - Cl
Usually, a complement follows...
Usually a complement follows a verb (seem, appear, become, be)
The man felt (gloomy)Cs.
The garden had become (overgrown)Cs.
Adverbials (A) give information about time, manner and place. You can check which part of a clause is an adverbial by asking questions like ...?
You can check which part of a clause is an adverbial by asking questions like how?, when?, where?, and how often?
What are the different types of adverbial?
Adverbials can be adverb phrases, prepositional phrases, noun phrases or clauses.
They went (to town)A/PrepP (yesterday)A/AdvP.
They went (to town)A/PrepP (on Saturdays)A/PrepP.
They went (to town)A/PrepP (last week)A/NP.
They went (to town)A/PrepP (when it rained)A/Cl.
More than one adverbial can be added to a clause, eg.
(Twice a week)A/NP the boy ran (to his grandmother's house)A/PrepP (for tea)A/PrepP.
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