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toipc 10 chem
Terms in this set (64)
hydrocarbon that has single carbon bonds
A hydrocarbon that contains a double bond.
an organic compound in which the carbonyl group (-C=O) is at the end of a carbon chain
An organic compound with a carbonyl group(c=o) of which the carbon atom is bonded to two other carbons.
a carbon compound with a carbon-carbon triple bond.
an organic compound made by chemically combining an alcohol and an organic acid
a compound containing a cyano group - C---N(triple bonded)
a halogen in the place of a hydrogen on an alkane
An aromatic hydrocarbon. AkA (Benzene)
what are the main features of a homologous series
they have similar chemical properties
they differ by a CH2 group
they ca be represented by the same formula
they have a graduation of physical properties
discuss the trend in boiling point for the alkane homologous series for carbon atoms 1-6
As the carbon chain increases through 1-6 atoms the boiling point increases and the dispersion forces get stronger
which will have a higher boiling point and Why? ethanal or Ethanol
ethanol has hydrogen bonding which is very strong IMF which causes a higher BP.
state the meaning of Unsaturated Hydrocarbon
there are double or triple bonds in a molecule
there are only single bonds in a molecule
what is the type of intramolecular bonds found in organic molecules
what are properties of molecules with covalent bonds
low melting points
most are insoluble
Same atoms but different arrangement.
isomers will have different physical and chemical properties as a result of their structure changes
as the number of carbon atoms increases in the compound the number of ________________________ will also increase
C5H12 HAS _________ ISOMERS `
C7H16 HAS ___________ ISOMERS
C10H22 HAS ______________ ISOMERS
C4H10 HAS ___________ ISOMERS
C6H14 HAS ________ ISOMERS
where are primary carbons located
they are attached to the functional group 2h atoms and 1 alkyl group
aka the terminal carbon
attached to the inner carbon 1 h atom and 2 alkyl group
attached to three carbons
3 alkyl groups.
what are two components that influence the physical properties of compounds
- the length of the carbon chain
- polarity of the molecule ( is the functional group polar)
what is the relationship between volitility and boiling point
a high volitility means a low boiling point
what do IMFs have to do with boiling point
the stronger the IMFs the higher the boiling point
what is the relationship between the Mr and a homologous series
as the molar mass increases within a series the Vanderwaals forces within the series increases
In homologous series, what is the difference between successive terms?
by the addition of a CH2 unit
alkanes - properties and behaviours
saturated hydrocarbons that are insoluble in water they need a strong source of energy to react and are safe to compress and transport they go through combustion reactions
why are alkanes used as fuels in combustion reactions
they are exothermic and release lot of energy
what is the environmental impact of carbon dioxide
its a greenhouse gas which causes the atmosphere to warm
carbon dioxide can be released into the air as soot causing smog and global dimming and respiratory problems.
An example of substitution
the halogen takes the place of the hydrogen
C(n)H(2n+2) + X(2) ------> C(n)H(2n+1)X + HX
Steps of reaction Mechanism with UV light
when the halogen molecules are exposed to the UV light the molecules will spit and the free radicals are formed.
this reaction both uses and produces the free radicals and allows the reaction to continue.
these reactions revoke the free radicals from the reaction by causing them to react together and pair up electrons.
what is the difference between a free radical and an ion
Alkenes - properties of/reactions of...
not soluble in water
the double bond is the site of reaction
they are the starting materials in manufacturing many industrial chemicals (ethanol)
The process of converting Alkenes to alkanes by adding hydrogen.
Alkene + H(2) ----> Alkane
Propene + hydrogen -----> propane
what is an industrial use of hydrogenation
it is used to improve food preservation but it can be very fatty.
when water seats with alkenes to create alcohols
ethene + water ----> ethanol
what are the industrial used of hydration reactions?
alcohol is a important solvent and is used on a large scale in industry
how do you distinguish between between an alkane and alkene
1. mix each substance with a halogen
2. burn each compound in a flame
what is the most common type of oxidizing agent used to for the oxidation of alcohols
Potassium Permanganate (K2MnO4) or potassium dichromate (K2CrO4)
What do you observe using potassium dichromate as an oxidising agent?
bright orange which changes to green during oxidation.
oxidation of primary alcohols
Can be oxidized into an aldehyde, and if gone further, can be oxidized into carboxylic acid.
color change orange to green
Oxidation of secondary alcohols
can be oxidized into a ketone
color change from orange to green
IS there oxidation of tertiary alcohols?
NOT POSSIBLE the c-c bond must break and that would require too much energy
esterification reaction of Alcohols
carboxylic acid + alcohol -> ester + water this is also called the condensation reaction because water is produced
eg. ethanol + butanoic acid ----> ethyl butanoate + water
the catalyst used in a condensation reaction is
sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
why are esters not soluble in water
they do not have the OH functional group and cannot form hydrogen bonds with the water. they will form a layer on the surface of the water
reactants that are electron rich and hence attract to regions of electron deficiency in a molecule. they have a lone electron pair and may be negatively charged
reactants that are electron deficient, they have a positive charge and are attracted to an electron rich benzene ring. this is called electrophilic substitution.
why does benzene not readily go through addition reactions
the addition would not work , it would take too much energy and the ring would not be conserved at the end of that reaction, benzene goes through substitution.
Benzene starts then a halogen is subsitutes for a hydrogen on the benzene ring leaving a halogenoarene and a substance with the extra halogen and the hydrogen.
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