Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Pharmacology for Nurses test
Terms in this set (78)
Escitalopram Oxidate (Lexapro)
Therapeutic Class: Antidrepressant/anxiolytic
Pharmacology Class: Selective seratonin re-uptake inhibitor. (SSRI)
Indications: General anxiety or depression
Warnings: Increases risk of suicide in adolescents and those with extreme depression.
Inhibits overactivity in brain.
Not as effective as dopaminergics.
Used in early stages and in combination therapy.
Example Benztropine (Cogentin)
Disease-modifying drugs used for treatment of relapse-remitting MS and secondary-progressive MS.
Synthetic protein that simulates myelin basic protein.
Reduce symptoms and decrease lesions
Two categories of Immunomodulators
Interferon Beta (Avonex, Betaseron)
Classifications of seisures
Partial, Generalized, and special syndromes.
Two types of Partial seizures
Simple Partial and Complete Partial
describe a Simple partial seizure
Hallucinations, intense emotions and twitching of the arms and legs.
describe a complete partial seizure
Preceding aura, brief period of confusion, sleepiness after the seizure with no memory, may attempt to remove clothing and no response to verbal commands.
Three types of generalized seizures
Absence (Petit Mal)
Atonic (drop attacks)
Tonic-Clonic (grand mal)
Describe an absence (petit Mal) seizure
Last a few seconds, most often seen in children will stare of into space, unresponsive to verbal stimulus, may have fluttering eyelids or jerking.
Describe an atonic seizure (drop attack)
Falling or stumbling for no reason, normally last only a few seconds.
Describe a tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizure
Preceding aura, Intense muscle contraction (tonic phase), followed by alternating contraction and relaxation of muscles (clonic phase). Crying at the beginning as air leaves lungs; loss of bowel bladder control, shallow breathing with period of apnea, disorientation and deep sleep after the seizure.
three types of special syndrome seizures
Describe a febrile seizure
Tonic-clonic activity lasting 1 to 2 minutes, rapid return to consciousness, it normally occurs in children 3 months to 5 years of age.
Describe Myoclonic seizures
Large jerking movement of the major muscle groups such as an arm. Falling from a sitting position or dropping what is held.
Describe status epilepticus
Considered a medical emergency
Continuous seizure activity which can lead to coma or death.
Symptoms of Schizophrenia
Characterized by positive and negative symptoms
Positive: add on to normal behavior
Negative: subtract from normal behavior
Diagnosis of positive and negative symptoms important for selection of appropriate drug.
Therapeutic class: Opiod Analgesic
Pharmacologic class: Opiod receptor agonist
Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) Mechanism of action
to inhibit cyclooxygenase and prevent formation of prostaglandins Include aspirin, ibuprofen and cox-2 inhibitors.
Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) Primary Use
for mild or moderate pain and to reduce inflammation.
Adverse effects of NSAIDS
GI upset, acute renal failure
Aspirin and Ibuprofen
May increase action of oral hypoglycemic agents, with high doses may cause GI distress and bleeding.
Work by blocking sodium channels. Temporarily suspending nerve conduction and preventing pain signals from reaching the CNS.
Nonselective Process: sensory and motor impulses affected
Neuromuscular Blocking drugs
Used to relax muscles during surgical procedures.
Bind to nicotinic receptors located on surface of skeletal muscle fibers. Interfere with binding of acetylcholine.
Patients can still feel pain.
Nondepolarizing and depolarizing both interfere with acetylcholine
Neuromuscular nondepolarizing drugs
atracurium "Tracrium" (Long Duration)
tubocurarine (oldest and longest duration)
Neuromuscular depolarizing drugs
used primarily to relax muscles of patients receiveing electroconvulsive therpay.
Dopamine and acetylcholine in corpus striatum
Affect balance, posture, Affect muscle tone, involuntary movement.
Absence of dopamine allows acetylcholine stimulation
MAO Inhibitors (MAOIs) mechanism of action
to decrease effectiveness of monoamine oxidase
MAO Inhibitors (MAOIs) Primary use:
Adverse effects of MAO Inhibitors (MAOIs)
orthostatic hypotension, headache, insomnia, and diarrhea. Also interact with a large number of foods and other medications. Hypertensive crisis can result from interaction of MAOIs and food containing tyramine.
Antidepressant Class Information
Safer than other classes. Less common sympathomimetic effects (increased heart rate and hypertension). Fewer anticholinergic effects,
can cause weight gain and sexual dysfunction.
Antiseizure Pharmacotherapy goal
suppress neuronal activity just enough to prevent abnormal or repetitive firing
Antiseizure Pharmacotherapy three mechanisms of action
Stimulating an influx of chloride ions.
Delaying an influx of sodium.
Delaying an influx of calcium.
Pregnancy and Epilepsy
Several antiseizure drugs decrease effectiveness of oral contraceptives.
Most antiseizure drugs are pregnancy category D.
Severe hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, characterized by seizures, coma, and perinatal mortality.
Released by most postganglionic nerves in sympathetic nervous system.
Class of agents called natural catecholamines, all involved in neurotransmission.
Binds to adrenergic receptors—receptors at the ends of postganglionic sympathetic neurons
Some treat short-term insomnia.
Others treat various anxiety disorders.
Most benzodiazepines are given orally.
Drugs of choice for short-term treatment of insomnia caused by anxiety—greater margin of safety. Work by Intensify effects of GABA
Major Advantage: do not produce life-threatening respiratory depression or coma
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) Inhibitors prototype drug
donepezil hydrochloride (Aricept)
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) Inhibitors Mechanism of action
to prevent breakdown of acetylcholine; enhance transmission in neurons.
Adverse effects of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) Inhibitors
nausea/vomiting, dizziness and headache, bronchoconstriction
Signs and Symptoms of MS
Fatigue, Heat sensitivity, Neuropathic pain; spasticity, Impaired cognitive ability, Disruption of balance and coordination, Visual disturbances; slurred speech, Bowel and bladder symptoms
Action blocks positive symptoms.
Prevent dopamine and serotonin from occupying neurologic receptor sites
Numerous Side effects; anticholinergic effects, sexual disorders, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, extrapyramidal
Subjective experience for patients.
Numerical scales and surveys assist in assessment.
Effective pharmacotherapy depends on
Assessment of degree of pain.
Determining underlying disorders.
Role of the Nurse in schizophrenia
Monitor patient's condition
Give patient drug education
Obtain health history (long-term physical problems)
Obtain drug history (use of illegal drugs, alcohol, etc.)
Obtain baseline assessment (liver and kidney function, vision, mental status)
Monitor for extrapyramidal symptoms, and report to the physician immediately
Hydantoins Prototype drug:
Hydantoins Mechanism of action:
to desensitize sodium channels
Hydantoins Primary use:
treating all types of epilepsy except absence seizures
Hydantoins Adverse effects:
CNS depression, gingival hyperplasia, skin rash, cardiac dysrhythmias, and hypotension
Serotonin agonists act by constricting certain intracranial vessels.
Interact with adrenergic, dopaminergic, and seratonin receptors act as vasoconstrictors terminate ongoing migraines
Pharmacologic Treatment of Muscle Spasticity
Combination of analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents and centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxants.
Mood Stabilizers Prototype drug:
lithium carbonate (Eskalith)
Mood Stabilizers Mechanism of action:
affects sodium transport across cell membranes
Mood Stabilizers Primary use:
Mood Stabilizers Adverse effects:
excessive loss of sodium
Centrally Acting Drugs That Relax Skeletal Muscles
baclofen, cyclobenzaprine, clonazepam, diazepam, lorazepm.
Baclofen Therapeutic class:
centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant.
baclofen pharmacologic class:
catecholamine reuptake inhibitor.
baclofen is used to
reduce muscle spasms in patients with multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, or spinal cord injury.
baclofen side effects
drowsiness, dizziness, weakness and fatigue. Baclofen is popular due to its wide safety margin.
cyclobenzaprine therapeutic class:
centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant
cyclobenzaprine pharmacologic class:
catecholamine reuptake inhibitor.
cyclobenzaprine is used to
relieve muscle spasms of local origin, not effective for cerebral palsy or diseases of the brain and spinal cord.
Antidepressants for treatment of anxiety symptoms
Elavil and Tofranil
Elavil and Tofranil
Therapeutic class: Antidepressant
Pharmacologic class: Tricyclic antidepressant
used to treat nocturnal enuresis in children.
adverse effects. Drowsiness, sedation, dizziness, orthostatic hypotensin, dry mouth constipation, urine retention, weight gain, tremor, dysrhythmias, blurred vision.
antidepressents for anxiety symptoms, restlessness and depression
Lexapro, Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft, cymbalta and effexor.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI)
Lexapro, Prozac, Paxil and Zoloft.
Increases the availability of serotonin at specific postsynaptic receptor sites within the CNS.
Used for generalized depression and anxiety.
adverse effects: nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, imsomnia, somnolence, headache, nervousness, anxiety, gastrointestinal (GI) disturbance, anorexia, sexual dysfuncion, agition, dizziness and fatigue.
cymbalta and efflexor
adverse effects: erratic heart rate and blood presure, orthostatic hypotension, dry mouth, dizziness, somnolence nausea, voming, sweating.
benzodiazepines for anxiety
xanax, valium, Ativan
benzodiazepines for Insomnia therapy
Doral, and Restoril.
nonbenzodiazepine, nonbarbiturate CNS depressants.
Buspar, Lunesta and Ambien
Long acting barbiturates with seadtive and hypnotic properties
adverse effect: Drowsiness, somnolence, agranulocytosis, respiratory depression, stevens johnson sndrome etc.
Opiod agonists with high effectiveness
Fentanyl, Dilaudid, Demerol, morphine
Opiod agonists with moderate effectiveness
codeine, hydrocodone, oxycodone
Opiods with mixed agaonist/antagonist effects
less chance of pure opiod withdrawal symptoms.
Pain blocking property is somewhat reduced.
can be used to diagnose overdose, can be used to reverse respiratory depression and other symptoms.
Other sets by this creator
Week 1 and 2 Key Points
Recommended textbook solutions
Clinical Reasoning Cases in Nursing
Julie S Snyder, Mariann M Harding
The Human Body in Health and Disease
Gary A. Thibodeau, Kevin T. Patton
Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning
G Haff, N Triplett
Principles and Foundations of Health Promotion and Education
Denise Seabert, James McKenzie
Other Quizlet sets
Worship and the Arts final exam
Chapter 22: Imperialism and Colonialism, 1870-1914
Bio 212: Genetics: Unit 3 Quest
International Econ Exam 1