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PE Unit 4 AOS 3
Terms in this set (33)
cardiovascular adaptations of aerobic training
- cardiac hypertrophy
- increased capillarisation of heart muscles
- decreased recovery rate
- increased stroke volume
- increased cardiac output
- increased blood volume and haemoglobin
improvement of increased stroke volume on performance
aerobic training results in cardiac hypertrophy. an increase in the size and volume of the left ventricle, in particular, occurs. this increases stroke volume and cardiac output, allowing a greater volume of food to be ejected from the heart, thus providing more oxygen for the athlete to use
improvement of increased capillarisation of the heart muscle on performance
cardiac hypertrophy also leads to an increase in the capillarisation of the heart muscle itself. the increased supply of blood and oxygen allows the heart to beat more strongly and efficiently during both exercise and rest.
improvement of faster heart rate recovery rate on performance
increased heart rate recovery means that the heart rate will return to resting levels in a much shorter time than that of an untrained individual. this is due to the greater efficiency of the cardiovascular system to produce energy aerobically.
improvement of increased blood volume and haemoglobin levels on performance
red blood cells may increase in number and the haemoglobin content and oxygen- carrying capacity of the blood may also rise. there is also an increased ratio of plasma in the blood calls, which reduced the viscosity of the blood allowing it to flow smoothly through the blood vessels. this allows a greater amount of oxygen to be delivered to the muscles and used by the athlete.
improvement of cardiac hypertrophy on performance
the heart is similar to other muscles in the t it will experience hypertrophy as a result of aerobic training. typically there will be an increase I the size of the left ventricular cavity and a slight thickening of the ventricular wall.
respiratory adaptations of aerobic training
- increased pulmonary diffusion
- increased tidal volume
- increased ventilation during max effort
- increased oxygen consumption
improvement of increased pulmonary diffusion on performance
aerobic training increased the surface area of the alveoli, which in turn increases the pulmonary diffusion, allowing more oxygen to be extracted and transported to the working muscles for use.
improvement of increased tidal volume on performance
aerobic training increases the amount of air inspired and expired by the lungs per breath. this allows for a greater amount of oxygen to be diffused into the surrounding alveoli capillaries and delivered to the working muscles.
improvement of ventilation during max effort on performance
aerobic training results in more efficient lung ventilation. At max effort, ventilation is increased due to an increase in tidal volume and respiratory frequency. this allows for greater oxygen delivery to working muscles at max intensities.
improvement of oxygen consumption on performance
oxygen consumption is the volume of oxygen taken up and utlised by the body per min per kg of body weight. during aerobic training an increase in oxygen consumption allows oxygenated blood to reach the working muscles to reduce the feelings of fatigue and aid in the breakdown of metabolic by products.
Muscular adaptations of aerobic training
- increased size and number of mitochondria
- increased myoglobin stores
- increased fuel storage and oxidative enzymes
- increased a-VO2 difference
- increased muscle fibre adaptations
improvement of increased size and number of mitochondria on performance
mitochondria are the sites of aerobic ATP resynthesis and where glycogen and triglyceride stores are oxidised. the greater the number and Sie of the mitochondria located within the muscle, the greater the ability to resynthesis ATP aerobically.
improvement of increased myoglobin stores on performance
myoglobin is responsible for extracting oxygen for the red blood cells and delivering it to the mitochondria in the muscle cell. an increase in the number of myoglobin stores increases the amount of oxygen delivered to the mitochondria for energy production.
improvement of increased fuel storage and oxidative enzymes on performance
aerobic training increases the muscular storage of glycogen and triglycerides in the slow-twitch muscle fibres and the is also an increase in the oxidative enzymes that are responsible for metabolising these fuel stores to produce ATP aerobically. this means that there is less reliance upon the anaerobic glycolysis system until higher intensities. in addition to this, due to increased levels of the enzymes associated with fat metabolism, an aerobically trained athlete is able to 'glycogen spare' more effectively and therefore work at higher intensities for longer.
improvement of increased a-VO2 difference on performance
all of the muscular adaptations contribute to the body's ability to attract oxygen into the muscle cells and then use it to produce ATP for muscle contraction. a measure of this is the difference in the amount of oxygen in the arterioles in comparison to the venules.
improvement of increased muscle fibre adaptations on performance
some research has indicated that skeletal muscle fast-twitch type 2A can take on some the characteristics of slow-twitch as an adaptation of aerobic training. this would allow for a greater ability y to generate ATP aerobically with fewer fatiguing factors.
physiologic adaptations from aerobic training
- increased VO2 max
- increased LIP
improvement of increased VO2 max on performance
an increase in the VO2 max allows for a greater amount of oxygen that can be taken in by the respiratory system, transported by the cardiovascular system and utilised by the muscular system to produce ATP, improving the economy for the athlete
improvement of increased LIP on performance
LIP represented the highest intensity point where there is a balance between lactate production and removal from the blood. the advantage of having a higher LIP is that the anaerobic glycolysis system isn't contributing as much until higher intensities are reached. this means that the athlete can work at higher intensities for longer periods without the accumulation of metabolic by productions
physiological adaptions from anaerobic training
- muscular hypertrophy
- increased muscular stores of ATP and CP
- increase in ATPase and creatine kinase enzymes
- increased glycolytic capacity
- increase in the number of motor units recruited
- increased lactate tolerance
improvement of muscular hypertrophy on performance
an increase in muscle fibre size due to an increase in the size and number of myofibrils and the protein filaments actin and myosin. this increase in size allows for a greater production of strength and power.
improvement of increased muscular stores of ATP and CP on performance
increased muscular stores of ATP and CP increases the capacity of the ATP-CP system, allowing for faster resynthesis of ATP for higher intensity activities
improvement of increase in ATPase and creatine kinase enzymes on performance
ATPase is responsible for breaking down ATP to form ADP and release energy for muscular contraction. creatine kinase initiates the breakdown of CP, which provides the energy to resynthesises ATP at a fast rate.
improvement of increased glycolytic capacity on performance
increased muscular storage of glycogen and consequently the increased levels of glycolytic enzymes, enhances the capacity of the anaerobic glycolysis system to produce energy.
improvement of increase in the number of motor units recruited on performance
an increase in the number of nerve axons and their corresponding muscle fibres increases the power and strength of muscular contractions.
improvement of increased lactate tolerance on performance
an increase in the ability of the muscle to buffer (neutralise) the acid that accumulates from the production of H+ions during an exercise bout. the increase in lactate tolerance prevents the onset of fatigue and allows an athlete to continue to generate ATP anaerobically, which is at a faster rate and allows them to work at a higher intensity, producing high lactate levels at the end performance.
aerobic training aims to improve
- aerobic power
- muscular endurance
anaerobic training aims to improve
- anaerobic capacity
- muscular strength
- muscular power
- muscular endurance
neuromuscular adaptations of resistance training
- muscle hypertrophy
- increased synchronisation of motor units
- increase in the firing rate of motor units
- a reduction in inhibitory signals
improvement of muscle hypertrophy on performance
an increase in the total quantity of actin and myosin protein filaments, the size and number of myofibrils and also in the amount of connective tissue that surrounds the muscle. this allows the muscle to create a greater amount of strength and power with each contraction
improvement of increased synchronisation of motor units on performance
an increase in the ability for a number of different motor units to fire at the same time and an improved ability to recruit larger motor units that require a larger stimulus to activate. the ability to recruit more motor units at the same time and ti stimulate larger motor units creates a more powerful muscular contraction.
improvement of increase in the firing rate of motor units on performance
an increase in the frequency of stimulation of a given motor unit increases the rate of force development or how quickly a muscle can contract maximally. this is beneficial for rapid ballistic movements where maximal force is required in a very short period of time.
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Physical Education (Unit 3)
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