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PE EXAM TERMS/DEFINITIONS
Terms in this set (184)
are the body's immediate, short - term responses that last only for the duration of the exercise or training session and for a short time period (recovery) afterwards
STROKE VOLUME (SV)
is the amount of blood that is ejected from the left ventricle with each beat contraction of the heart
CARDIAC OUTPUT (Q)
is the amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle of the heart per minute
EQUATION: · Cardiac output (Q) = Heart rate (HR) x Stroke volume (SV)
is the pressure exerted by the blood against the arterial walls as it is forced through the circulatory system by the action of heart. It is made up of two components
SYSTEMATIC BLOOD FLOW
blood flow around the body
Is the process where blood vessels constrict or narrow as a response to a decreased demand of oxygen delivery to the muscle.
Is the process where blood vessels increase their internal diameter as a response to an increased demand for oxygen delivery to the muscle.
ARTERIOVENOUS OXYGEN DIFFERENCE (a-VO2 difference)
is the difference in oxygen concentration in the arterioles (arteries) compared to the venules (veins); a measure of how much oxygen the muscles are extracting from the blood.
RESPIRATORY RATE (RR)/RESPIRATORY FREQUENCY (RF)
is the number of breaths taken per minute.
TIDAL VOLUME (TV)
is the amount of air breathed in in one breath
Is the amount of air inspired per minute by the lungs.
EQUATION: Ventilation (V) = Respiratory rate (RR) x Tidal volume (TV)
is the process where oxygen is taken in via the lungs to the blood, and carbon dioxide is diffused from the blood to the lungs. It is where gaseous exchange occurs; in the lungs at the alveolar-capillary interface and in the muscle at the tissue-capillary interface through diffusion.
is the amount of oxygen transported to, taken up and used by the body for energy production.
is the state in which there is a discrepancy (shortfall) between oxygen supply and demand and the oxygen needed to meet the energy requirements of the exercise.
is the state in which oxygen supply equals oxygen demand meaning that virtually all of the required ATP to maintain the current exercise intensity is being supplied aerobically, so that there is no need for further increases in oxygen uptake and there is little reliance on the anaerobic pathways.
EXCESS POST - EXERCISE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION (EPOC)
Is the amount of oxygen consumed during the recovery period after the cessation of an exercise bout that is over and above the amount usually required at rest.
FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT SKILLS
are skills that provide the basis for the development of more sport-specific movement skills. It is essential these are introduced to children at a young age because without this grounding they may not be able to master sport-specific skills, deterring them from participating in structured sport later on in life
FUNDAMENTAL MOTOR SKILLS
voluntary, goal-directed activity that are learned through experience and practice. They are special form of skill that require movement of the body or limbs to achieve the goal.
CLOSED MOTOR SKILLS
Are those where the performer has the greatest control over their environment. These skills is self-paced and executed in a stable, predictable environment (e.g. playing billiards, throwing a dart or diving off an indoor platform).
OPEN MOTOR SKILLS
Are those where the performer has the less control over their environment. These skills are externally-paced and are executed in a variable, unpredictable environment (e.g. digging in volleyball, tackling in rugby and white-kayaking).
GROSS MOTOR SKILLS
Involve the recruitment of large muscle groups associated with movements requiring force or power such as running, swimming and/or weight-lifting. There is less emphasis on precision when compared to fine motor skills (e.g. muscles in the arms & legs).
FINE MOTOR SKILLS
Involve the recruitment of smaller muscle groups associated with movements requiring precision such as bouncing a tennis ball, moving a chess piece or throwing a dart. There is less emphasis on force when compared to gross motor skills (e.g. muscles in the fingers & hands).
DISCRETE MOTOR SKILLS
Are skills that has a distinct beginning and end. These involve one distinct movement, which are short in duration (e.g. catching, throwing or kicking).
SERIAL MOTOR SKILLS
Are skills that have a combination of several discrete skills performed in a sequence (e.g. bowling in cricket, gymnastic floor routine or serving a ball in tennis)
CONTINUOUS MOTOR SKILLS
are skills that has no obvious beginning or end point. These involve repetitive movements, which are that are long in duration (e.g. running, swimming or walking).
· body size (height, weight)
· fitness level (agility, speed, flexibility etc.)
· mental skills (confidence, concentration etc.)
· perceptual and decision-making skills (recognising patterns of play)
· technical skills
· natural light
· noise level in a gym or sports field
· weather conditions
· locality (park, backyard etc.)
· auditory feedback or other environmental features
· cultural norms
· family support
· peer groups
· rules of the sport
· equipment available
· field/pitch/court dimensions
· player number (team size) - e.g. 3 vs 3 soccer rather that 11 vs 11
· instructions about how to complete the task
relative state of the game
QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF MOVEMENT SKILLS
is the systematic observation of the quality of human movement for the purpose of providing the most appropriate intervention to help improve an individual's sporting performance. Feedback is an important aspect of skill development, prevention of injuries and rehabilitation.
1. The critical features of the skill (parts of a movement that are important for success)
2. Information about the performer/s
Details about the observation stage 2 what constitutes effective instruction.
The skill is recorded/measured. This can occur by watching the performer or digitally recording them performing the movement. The purpose of this task is to gather and organise the information. The observation task involves the actual recording/measurement of the skill.
· Observations are used to identify errors and positive aspects of the performer's technique
· Allows them to picture desirable body positions during the phases of a skill
· Based on a small number of critical features - strengths and weaknesses
· Verbal feedback
· Physical conditions
· Modified practice or use a visual model
· Manual guidance - coach physically moves the body parts
· Mechanical guidance - wears a brace to correct position
is the science that studies the mechanical principles that govern human movement.
involves the study of the forces that contribute to motion
is motion that occurs in either a straight line (rectilinear) or curved path (curvilinear).
takes place when a body moves along a circular path. It occurs around an axis, which can be either external or internal (e.g. an external axis in sport is a gymnast rotating around a high bar, while an internal axis would be a joint in the body around which a body part rotates).
is the quantity of matter found within a particular body
is a measure of gravitational force acting on a body.
is the resistance of a body to change its state of motion. (The greater the mass, the greater the inertia)
a push or pull (measured in Newtons (N)).
It can affect an object in two ways:
- Change the shape of an object (e.g. stretching, squashing and twisting).
- Move the object (e.g. starts moving from rest, speeds up, slows down or changes direction).
Are inside of the body; muscular contractions (e.g. biceps lifting a dumbbell during a curl or quadriceps when kicking an AFL football).
Are outside of the body (e.g. gravitational forces (weight) and frictional forces including drag forces in air and water).
Is a constant force that acts through the center of mass of an object towards Earth (e.g. without gravity, a ball thrown into the air would just keep going. It is the force of gravity that brings the ball back down and creates the parabolic path).
is a force that acts in the opposite direction to motion when two surfaces are in contact with one another. In sporting situations, it might be beneficial to decrease or increase the friction between the surfaces. (e.g. In downhill skiing, wax is used on the bottoms of the skis to decrease friction. Whereas, in weightlifting chalk is used to increase the friction between their hands and the bar)
In Ballroom Dancing, the floor is polished to decrease friction between the dancer's shoes and the floor. Whereas, in Athletics, shoes have cleats, spikes and stops to increase the friction between the athlete's shoes and the track.
In Lawn Bowls and Soccer, where a ball rolls across a contact surface, rolling friction will depend on: the nature of the surface of the ball, the nature of the surface that the ball rolls across, the radius of the ball and the weight of the ball.
is when air or water (or any other fluid or gas) acts on a body or object, opposing its direction of motion, slowing it down.
is the force of attraction two bodies or objects.
Momentum is a measure of the amount of motion an object has and its resistance to changing that motion (measured in kg m/s).
CALCULATION: Momentum (p) = mass (m) x velocity (v)
CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM
states that the total momentum in an isolated system before a collision is equal to the total momentum after the collision. The object will take the result of the combined forces and move on that path.
SUMMATION OF MOMENTUM
is the sequential and coordinated movement of each body segment to produce maximum velocity. Also known as summation of forces, summation of speed or the kinetic link principle.
E.g. A baseball pitcher drives with their legs, rotates their torso, rotates their shoulder, extends their elbow and flexes the wrist in a coordinated manner to execute the fastest possible pitch).
is the movement of a body part around an axis of rotation; it is the product of moment of inertia and angular velocity. (E.g. gymnastics)
MOMENT OF INERTIA
is the resistance of an object to changes in it angular motion.
CALCULATION: · Momentum of inertia = mass x radius²
NEWTONS FIRST LAW (INERTIA)
states that 'a body will remain at rest or in uniform motion in a straight line unless acted open by an external force.'
(E.g. A cricket ball hit into the air would continue travelling in a straight line without gravity. A cricket ball will also sit on the ground and not move until a force act upon it).
NEWTONS SECOND LAW (ACCELERATION)
states that 'a force applied to an object will produce a change in motion (acceleration) in the direction of the applied force that is directly proportional to the size of the force.
- (E.g. If a soccer ball is kicked to the left, it will move to the left. The harder the ball is kicked with the foot, the quicker it's rate of movement will change).
- Athletes in baseball and/ or softball use this principle; direction > based on oppositions positioning on the field and force > illustrate the force used in a home run hit.
NEWTONS THIRD LAW (ACTION/REACTION)
states that 'every action there is an equal and opposite reaction'.
· (E.g. a runner pushes off with each step, the force they place through the ground (action) is the same as the force that is pushed back against the runner (reaction). Differences surfaces provided different reactions (e.g. running on an athletics track v. running on sand)
CALCULATION: F=ma; Force (Newton's) (N) = Mass (kg) x Acceleration (m/s2)
FIRST LAW OF ANGULAR MOTION
states that 'the angular momentum of a body remains constant unless acted upon by an external torque'.
- For angular motion to exist: axis and lever.
is the rotational force (a push or pull) that makes an object rotate.
SECOND LAW OF ANGULAR MOTION
states that 'a torque applied to an object will produce a change in angular motion in the direction of the applied torque that is directly proportional to the size of the torque and inversely proportional to the moment of inertia of the object.'
DIRECTIONAL PROPORTIONAL TO THE SIZE OF THE TORQUE
If the lever has a low torque applied to it, the change of rate will be small; if the lever has a high torque applied to it, the rate of change will be large
THIRD LAW OF ANGULAR MOTION
states that 'for every torque there is an equal and opposite torque'
Is the study of movement with reference to time, distance, displacement and velocity. It studies things such as how fast or how far bodies move, without being interested in what causes these objects to move the way they do.
refers to how much ground an object covers throughout its motion.
is the difference the initial position and final position of an object.
is total of all angular changes that result from an object or body part angle between the starting and finishing position.
is the difference in degrees between the object or body part's initial and final position
is the rate of motion.
Speed (m/s)= distance/time
is the displacement of the object over time.
Velocity (m/s) = displacement/time
Is the distance covered in degrees over a period taken to complete the motion.
Angular speed (deg/s) = distance degrees/time
is a change in velocity over time.
Acceleration (m/s2) = change in velocity/change in time
is a change in angular velocity over time or how quickly a body changes it's angular position.
Angular Acceleration (deg/s2)= change in angular velocity/change in time
FACTORS THAT WILL AFFECT THE WAY A PROJECTILE WILL TRAVEL THROUGH THE AIR
1. Speed of release
2. Angle of release
3. Height of release
45° is optimal for release
is a simple machine consisting of a rigid bar that can be made to rotate around an axis in order to exert a force or speed on another object. Each is made up of three parts: an axis (or pivot point), a resistance (or load to be moved) and a force (or effort)
FIRST CLASS LEVER (F.A.R)
is when the axis is located between the force and the resistance (F.A.R)
SECOND CLASS LEVER (A.R.F)
is when resistance is located between the axis and the force
THIRD CLASS LEVER (A.F.R)
is when the force is located between the axis and the force (most common in the human body and in sporting applications of human movement
is the ratio of force arm to resistance arm.
is the distance from the axis to the force.
is the distance from the axis to the resistance.
is where all of the forces and torques acting on a body or an object are balanced
the ability of a body or an object to resist a change in its current state of equilibrium.
BASE OF SUPPORT
- larger the base support, the greater stability of a body or object
- legs apart = large base of support
CENTER OF GRAVITY
is the point at which the whole weight of object can be considered to act.
LINE OF GRAVITY
is a theoretical line that passes through the centre of gravity in the direction that gravity acts.
DIRECT APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION
often referred to as 'the traditional approach', is a coach - orientated instruction model in which learners are given explicit instructions about skill execution & tactical awareness.
CONSTRAINTS BASED APPROACH
to instruction differs from the direct approach by seeking to develop effective movement skills within a game context
THE COGNITIVE STAGE OF LEARNING
- is where a performer is attempting to comprehend or understands the requirements of the motor skill.
- Their attention will be focusing their attention on movement production and their performance will be inconsistent, with movements being stiff and unrelaxed.
- Beginners are often aware of what is wrong but are not sure how to correct the problem as he/she have not developed their error detection and correction abilities.
- Improvement is rapid with individual benefiting from blocked practice
THE ASSOCIATIVE STAGE OF LEARNING
- is where a performer is starting to refine the technique that is used when performing the motor skill.
- Their attention on performing the skill will decrease, allowing them more time to focus on external stimuli such as the effects of a spin on a ball, or positioning of an opposition. Intermediate performers will be more consistent with their performance, making fewer errors. They can detect errors and can develop strategies to help eliminate them.
- Improvement is gradual with individual benefiting from serial practice
THE AUTONOMOUS STAGE OF LEARNING
- is where a performer does not need to think about the skill and is largely automatic (not all learners progress to this stage). Their attention can be on stimuli such as calling play as well as tactics and strategies.
- Advanced performers have developed anticipation and can detect their own errors and correct them.
- Improvement is very minimal with individual benefiting from random practice.
- safety in community
- facilitation (gym, parks)
- government (politics)
The most improvement occurs in the cognitive stage of learning and as an individual progress through the other stages (associative and autonomous), their rate of improvement slows; this is known as diminishing returns
Is practice that is bunched together over longer sessions, less often. Rest intervals between the tasks are shorter. This model is adopted by non-professional team sports because they need to schedule training around the varied family, school and work commitments of team members. Physical and psychological fatigue is more likely to result from massed practice.
Is practice that is spread out over frequent shorter sessions. Rest intervals between are longer. This model is adopted by professional sporting teams such as AFL, A-League or Rugby teams.
is repetitively practicing a skill for a period before practicing another skill. Each skill is practiced in a block, in isolation from other skills, before moving on to the next skill. This practice is beneficial for beginners who are attempting to comprehend and reproduce movement action; environment should be kept closed or stable.
is a form of practice that involves rehearsing different skills but in a fixed and relatively predictable environment. This practice is beneficial for performers who are in the associative and autonomous stage of learning.
Is varied sequencing of different motor skills within the same training session. This practice is beneficial for performers who are in the associative and autonomous stage of learning. Random practice results in higher retention of learning when compared with block practice
1. Feedback motivates the learner by providing information on the progress of skill learning.
2. Feedback highlights skill errors and enables the learner to make appropriate corrections.
3. Feedback also provides positive reinforcement, confirming when the learner is performing correctly.
INTRINSIC (INTERNAL) FEEDBACK
Is when performers use their own sense to assess performance against the goal given for the task. It is internal, happening within (e.g. when performing a tennis serve, a performer can see where the ball lands in the court (visual), hear the sound the ball made hitting the racquet (auditory), sense their body position (proprioception) and feel their grip on the racquet (touch).
AUGMENTED (EXTERNAL) FEEDBACK
Helps to give the performer a point of reference for their own internal feedback. This gives the performer a reference point for their internal feedback system.
- Concurrent feedback is provided during the performance. (e.g. a coach giving their athlete their spilt times during a triathlon).
- Terminal feedback is provided after the performance (e.g. a coach telling their athlete to toss the ball higher after a tennis serve).
KNOWLEDGE OF RESULTS
Knowledge of results is feedback about the outcome of the task. As a performer improves task outcomes and their own intrinsic feedback develops, the beginner will become less reliant on knowledge of results. This type of feedback is beneficial for beginners who attempting to comprehend and reproduce movement action (e.g. a coach giving their athlete the amount of free throws achieved in a minute).
KNOWLEDGE OF PERFORMANCE
Knowledge of performance is feedback about the characteristics of performing the task. This type of feedback is usually given as terminal feedback and can take the form of coaching 'cues' or reviewing video footage (e.g. a coach telling their athlete to tuck tighter in a dive to increase rotational speed).
1. is a low intensity (60-70% MHR) activity completed at the end of an exercise bout that allows the body to recover by maintaining an elevated blow flow to the muscles and preventing venous pooling gradually returning the body to its resting state.
Is lying or sitting down at the end of an exercise bout that allows oxygen to be freed for the replenishment of creatine phosphate (increased blood flow is not required for this to occur).
'HITTING THE WALL'
is a term used in endurance sports to describe a condition caused by the depletion of glycogen stores in the muscle and liver, which manifest itself as precipitous fatigue and loss of energy.
LACTATE INFLECTION POINT (LIP)
represents the highest intensity point where there is a balance between lactate production and removal from the blood. Beyond this point, lactate and hydrogen ions (H+) accumulate and enter into the blood faster than they can removed from it.
OPENING SENTENCE FOR AN INTERPLAY
At the beginning of exercise all three energy systems are activated with their contribution towards ATP resynthesis depending on the intensity and the duration of the activity
« is the recording and analysis of movement and skill data from an activity, game or sport.
the quality activity analysis helps coaches and performers gain specific knowledge that can be used to design tailored training programs.
Is the first process in activity analysis, which involves gathering information.
The coach or interested party views the player or team from the sideline.
- immediate changes can be made to the playing set up or the style of play in response to how the game is progressing
- player fatigue easily observed and counteracted by using a bench for recovery
- subjective or opinion based
- no way of showing the players how they performed
- limited observer memory
- accurate collection of intensity
- combines movement patterns with intensities
- can be expensive
- limited number of GPS
WORK - TO - REST RATIO
is a summary of the time an athlete spends physically working compared to the time spent resting or recovering.
is the maximum rate of energy production from the aerobic energy system; that is, energy produced in the presence of oxygen.
is the total amount of energy obtainable from the anaerobic energy systems (the combined capacity of the ATP-CP system and anaerobic glycolysis system).
Is the peak force that can be generated in a muscle or muscle group in one maximal effort.
is the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to exert a maximum amount of force in the shortest period of time.
Is the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to sustain repeated contractions against a resistance for an extended period of time.
Is the rate of motion (distance/time).
Is a combination of flexibility and speed, which allows a performer to change direction with maximum control and speed.
is the range of movement (ROM) around a joint.
Balance is the ability of the body to remain in a stable of equilibrium while performing a desired task.
There are two recognised types:
- Dynamic balance, which involves keeping the body's balance under control while moving.
- Static balance, which involves keeping the body's balance under control while not moving.
refers to the relative proportions of bone, muscle and fat within the body
is the ability to use different parts of the body together smoothly and efficiently.
is the time between a stimulus and the first response.
are the body's long term responses of the cardiovascular, respiratory and muscular systems that develop over a period of time when training is repeated regularly
is the process of dividing the annual training plan into a series of manageable phases, with each phase designed to target a specific goal developed within a designated time period.
THE PREPARATORY PHASE
(pre-season and/ or conditioning phase) of training is the first year within a yearly training program. It usually last between 2 - 4 months in total.
GENERAL PREPARATORY PHASE
The general phase is when strength building exercises are introduced and an emphasis is placed on maximising the capacities of the relevant energy systems, particularly the aerobic energy system
· Both fitness testing and specific skill correction are a common focus of this period of training.
(in season phase) of training is the phase of training in which the emphasis is on maintaining fitness and skill level that was developed during the preparatory phase, and further developing and refining strategies, tactics and game plans. It usually lasts between 4 - 6 months in total.
refers to the planning of training so that an athlete reaches their optimum state of readiness in order to perform at a particular predetermined time.
refers to a reduction in training that allows the athlete time for extra recovery and for their energy stores to be fully restored.
involves undertaking activities and exercise at the beginning of a training session that are designed to prepare the body both physiologically and psychologically for the conditioning phase of the training session.
is the main focus of the training session and it may include a skill development phase and/or a fitness conditioning phase.
involves completing a low - intensity activity completed at the end of an exercise bout, which allows for the body to recover by maintaining an elevated blood flow to the muscles and preventing venous pooling, gradually returning the body to its resting physiological state.
is an accumulation of blood in the veins in inactive muscles following activity.
PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAINING DATA
provides information about the body's physical functioning in response to training.
PSYCHOLOGICAL TRAINING DATA
provides the athlete with an understanding of their mental readiness and mental capacity to train and perform: thoughts, feelings and cognitive characteristics that affect behavior.
is the process of replicating the characteristics of physical activity in training to ensure it benefits performance. It is the most important training principle.
is the exertion level or how hard the training is being performed. It is commonly measured as a percentage of maximum heart rate (MHR), which is determined by beats per minute (bpm).
can refer to the length of a training session, the length of a work interval within a training session and/or the length of the overall training program. An athlete will not make fitness gains unless they are working at the required intensity for the required amount of time.
refers to the number of training sessions needed per week to ensure improvements are achieved in the desired fitness components and energy systems.
is the systematic application of overload in order to achieve the adaptations required to improve performance; that is, there can be no improvement in personal fitness levels without increasing and/ or overloading the existing training levels. Any progressive overload of physical activity is controlled by the manipulation of the FITT principle (Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type of exercise).
occurs when there is a long - term decline in performance and physical functioning.
is about providing different activities, formats and drills in training, while still addressing the aims of the training program. Its focus is to maintain the motivation levels of the performer and thereby optimize their fitness gains.
The law of diminishing returns states that the rate of fitness improvement diminishes as a person approaches their genetic potential; that is, someone who is unfit can make a large improvement in the first few weeks of a training program, while someone who is already fit can make only progressive, small gains despite training at a high level.
is a period of time when training is ceased or there is a reduction in training load beyond what is required for fitness to be maintained.
describes the fitness and/or performance loss after a period of detraining
· Acquired fitness levels can be maintained by carefully altering the FITT principle (Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type of exercise).
· The principle of maintenance suggests that once a required level of fitness has been achieved, the level of effort to maintain that level of fitness is not as great as was required to achieve it.
The principle of individuality suggests that individual responses to physical activity are highly varied.
is an enlargement of the heart muscle as a result of training.
- This increases stroke volume and cardiac output, allowing a greater volume of blood to be ejected from the heart, thus providing more oxygen for the athlete to use.
is an increase in the capillary density and blood flow to skeletal or cardiac muscle as a result of aerobic training.
- The increased supply of blood and oxygen allows the heart to beat more strongly and efficiently during both exercise and rest.
is the amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle with each beat (contraction) of the heart.
RESTING HEART RATE
is the number of heart beats per minute while the body is at rest.
CHRONIC ADAPTATIONS TO AEROBIC TRAINING - CARDIOVASCULAR
- increased left ventricle size and volume
- increased capillarisation
- increased SV of the heart
- decreased heart rate at rest and during submaximal workloads
- faster HR recovery rates
- increases Q during maximal exercise
- decreased blood pressure
CHRONIC ADAPTATIONS TO AEROBIC TRAINING - RESPIRATORY
- increased TV
- decreasing resting and submaximal respiratory rate
- increased pulmonary ventilation during maximal exercise
- increased pulmonary diffusion
CHRONIC ADAPTATIONS TO AEROBIC TRAINING - MUSCULAR
-increased oxygen uitization
- increased ateriovenous oxygen difference (a-VO2 diff)
- increased fuel storage and oxidative enzymes
- increased muscle fibre adaptation
CHRONIC ADAPTATIONS TO AEROBIC TRAINING - CARDIOVASCULAR, RESPIRATORY, MUSCULAR
- increased maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max)
- increased lactate inflection point (LIP)
CHRONIC ADAPTATIONS TO ANAEROBIC TRAINING
- increased muscular hyper trophy
- increased muscular stores of ATP, ATPase, creatine kinase enzyme and creatine phosphate (CP)
- increased glycolytic capacity
- increased ability to recruit more motor units
- increased cardiac hypertrophy
- increased muscle size changes in muscle structure
- increased synchronization of motor unit
- increased in the firing rate if motor units
- increased firing rate (rate coding) of motor units
- decreased inhibitory signals
is high blood pressure
SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE
Is the blood pressure recorded as blood is ejected during the contraction phase of the heart cycle. It is the higher of the two blood - pressure values.
DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE
is the blood pressure recorded as blood is ejected during the relaxation phase of the heart cycle. It is the lower of the two blood - pressure values.
Dehydration is the result of thermoregulatory fatigue.
Provide electrolytes and replaces water and lost electrolytes and energy before an event
quickly replace fluids and electrolytes lost through sweating
consumed to help meet an athlete's energy requirements during and after prolonged endurance and ultra-distance events
sleep and rest are essential for gaining the anabolic effects of training. It plays an important role in:
1. Tissue growth and repair.
2. Immune function.
3. Allowing the brain to rest and recharge.
is a belief an athlete has about their ability to execute a specific task and/ or goal successfully.
Self - confidence is what an individual has when they believe that they can successfully perform a task and achieve their goal
- Persevere even when things are not going to plan
- Show enthusiasm and motivation
- Be positive in their approach and take their share of the responsibility in success and failure
- believe in themselves and their skills.
- Exhibit positive emotions.
- Remain calm under pressure.
- Think more positively.
- Have a greater ability to follow, understand and execute game plans.
Is when an athlete fails to perform under pressure and can result in:
1. An increase in negative self-talk.
2. Poor judgement and decision making, leading to poor skill selection.
3. A decrease in selective attention and an inability to attend to relevant cues.
4. Rushing and not taking the normal preparation time for skill execution.
5. A decrease in coordination and timing due to increase in muscular tension.
can be defined as 'the causes of the initiation, maintenance and intensity of behaviour'.
· In sport, motivation can also be described as the driving force behind an athlete's desire and determination to achieve their goals.
· Athletes with high levels of motivation often exhibit the following characteristics:
1. A desire for success.
2. A willingness to take risks.
3. An acknowledgement of their own ability as crucial to their success.
An ability to increase their effort and concentration as the task difficulty increases
comes from within and occurs when factors such as enjoyment, satisfaction, improvement and enhanced feelings of self-worth are the primary motivation for performance.
Extrinsic motivation has an external focus and usually involves some form of material benefit such as financial reward, awards and trophies, glory and recognition.
is an extremely effective motivational technique which involves setting plans to work towards achieving specific and beneficial objectives and results.
is an emotional state associated with heightened arousal.
· Performance or competitive anxiety can cause athletes to react both physically and mentally in a manner that can negatively affect their performance.
· Performance anxiety can manifest itself in two ways:
1. Physical (or somatic) anxiety — butterflies, sweating, nausea, needing to go to the toilet.
2. Mental (or cognitive) anxiety — worrying, negative thoughts, confusion, lack of concentration.
is the readiness an individual experiences when faced with a sporting situation or task.
· In the field of sports psychology, many models have been created to explore arousal levels as they relate to athletic performance. These models include the following:
1. The Drive Theory predicts that if an athlete is appropriately skilled then it will help them to perform well if their drive to compete is aroused.
2. The inverted-U hypothesis predicts that the relationship between arousal and performance approximates an inverted-U shape The theory is that as arousal increases performance improves, but only up to a certain point (top of the inverted U). If the athlete's arousal is increased beyond this point, then performance diminishes.
AROUSAL REDUCTION TECHNIQUES
1. Progressive Muscle Relaxation.
2. Controlled Breathing.
5. Stress Inoculation Training
AROUSAL PROMOTION TECHNIQUES
1. Elevate breathing rate.
2. 'Act' energetic.
3. Positive self - talk.
4. Energising Imagery.
6. Pre - competition workout.
· or visualisation involves athletes visualising themselves performing a skill or competition event flawlessly, such as sinking a putt in golf or successfully throwing a free throw goal in basketball.
FUEL SOURCE: creatine phosphate
RATE: most rapid
YIELD: very small
DOMINANT TIME PERIOD: 0-10 secs
CAUSE OF FATIGUE: depletion of CP stores
- muscular strength and power
- anaerobic power
- speed and agility
- reaction time
TRAINING METHODS: short interval training
ANAEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS SYSTEM
FUEL SOURCE: glucose and glycogen
DOMINANT TIME PERIOD: 10 - 75/90 secs
INTENSITY: 85 - 95%
CAUSE OF FATIGUE: metabolic by-products (H+)
- muscular power and endurance
- anaerobic capacity
- speed and agility
TRAINING METHODS: short interval, circuit training
AEROBIC ENERGY SYSTEM
carbohydrate (glycolysis) and fats (lipolysis)
FUEL SOURCE: glucose, glycogen, FFA and triglycerides
RATE: slow and slowest
38, 39, 129, 387 (large, very larger)
DOMINANT TIME PERIOD: 75/90 seconds - 90 minutes or 4+ hours
EVENT: endurance, ultra endurance
CAUSE OF FATIGUE: depletion og glycogen stores
- muscular endurance
- aerobic power
TRAINING METHODS: continous, farlek, HIIT
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
PE 3/4 Oxygen Uptake + Acute Responses
P.E unit 3 AOS 1
Phys Ed biomechanics
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