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PSYC366 - UNE - Chapter 10 - Reproductive Behaviours
Terms in this set (44)
What are Mullerian ducts?
precursors to the female's oviducts, uterus, and upper vagina
What are Wolffian ducts?
Precursor of male sex structures
sex determining region of the Y chromosome
What does the SRY gene activate?
Gonads to become testes to produce androgens
What do the androgens activate/do after activation by the SRY gene?
* further grow testes
* change Wolffian ducts to seminal vesicles and vas deferens
* produce Mullerian-inhibiting hormone
duct from testes to penis
Females lack the SRY gene, thus the gonads develop into...... and the .......... degenerates
what is the chemical for androgen and estrogen?
testosterone and estradiol
In which three ways do steroids exert their effects?
1. bind to membrane receptors
2. enter cells, activating proteins in cytoplasm
3. bind to receptors on chromosomes to activate/inhibit genes
Name two differences between the organising and activating effects of sex hormones
1. organising effects exert a long-lasting change in structures, where activating effects are more temporary
2. organising effects are relevant during sensitive periods, where activating effects only while the hormone is present or shortly beyond
Name 2 sensitive periods for organising effects of sex hormones
1. first trimester of pregnancy
Name three examples of activating effects of sex hormones
1. menstrual cycle
2. sex drive
For mammals, differentiation of the external genitals depends mainly on....
How are the male and female sex patterns expressed
High testosterone = male
Low testosterone = female
What is essential for development of female internal organs and normal sexual behaviour?
estradiol and activation of certain genes
Which brain areas differ in males/females
congenital adrenal hyperplasia
How can a child get CAH?
By a very high burst of testosterone right before birth. Affects only females
What does testosterone do around sexual activities?
primes the medial preoptic area to release dopamine during arousal
What do men who are less likely to marry or remain faithful have in common?
Higher levels of testosterone
How does dopamine contribute to sexual activities?
In moderate concentrations is stimulates D1 and D5 receptors enabling an erection and female sexual postures. In high concentrations is stimulates D2 receptors for orgasm.
how does serotonin inhibit sexual activity?
By blocking dopamine receptors
What drugs are used for sex offenders?
What is another word for viagra
How does viagra work?
prolongs the effect of Nitric oxide which increases blood flow
Which three female organs regulate the menstrual cycle?
Hypothalamus -> Pituitary gland -> Ovaries
Which four female hormones are involved in the menstrual cycle?
1. FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone)
2. Estradiol (produced by follicle)
3. LH (lutenising hormone)
FSH + LH release egg
Corpus luteum releases
inhibits further release of LH and prepares uterus for implantation
What hormones can make women nauseated?
high estradiol and high progesterone as they fluctuate activity at three serotonin receptors
which nerve is connected to the female reproductive organs?
the Pudendal nerve
What does testosterone make harder to do?
recognise angry faces
Which hormone, when given to men, makes them more responsive to distress?
Which two hormones are active after delivery in the mother?
1. Oxytocin - maternal behaviour
2. prolactin - milk production
What does prolactin do as well?
Inhibits sensitivity to leptin, making mums eat more
Which hormone has to do with social behaviour and sexual fidelity?
In rats, which hormones help them to take care of their young (and not ignore them)?
Prolactin and Estradiol (then it is down to experience)
In human, is parental behaviour more experience or hormone dependent?
What is it called when a male is not reacting to their androgens?
Androgen insensitivity or testicular feminization
What influences a certain sexual orientation
testosterone levels during a sensitive period of brain development as a fetus. External anatomy develops at a a different time than the brain
Why is the probability for homosexuality slightly higher for man who has older brothers?
Because of the mother's immune system
What else can antagonise the effects of testosterone during pregnancy?
stress. It releases endorphins which have an effect on the hypothalamus
Which part of the brain is more than twice as large in heterosexual men than in women?
The third interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH-3)
XY chromosomes, however due to insensitive androgen receptors, female secondary characteristics. Often not discovered until puberty.
(chemical) removal of the testes
Why are prairie voles monogamous?
They have more vasopressin receptors in the ventral palladum of the basal ganglia
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