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1.1 Glossary Flashcards (on Quizlet) - Research Methods (Y10 Term 1)
Year 10 - Term 1 2021 (content to-date)
Terms in this set (40)
A threat to internal validity that occurs when a researcher's expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained.
Deidentifying participants in a study as part of ethical conduct in research.
A method of controlling for order effects in a repeated measure design by randomly determining the order of each condition for each participant.
Bar graph with error bars
A visual representation of the mean and standard deviation used in a report for an experimental design.
A method for recruiting participants into a study that uses people who are easily accessible and readily available to participate.
Related to ethical conduct in research, this refers to intentionally misleading participants about the true purpose of a study or the events that will actually transpire.
To express a variable in terms of how it will be manipulated or measured.
An ethical principle of research requiring that research participants be told enough about the study to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate.
An ethical principle of research requiring the explanation of a study to participants, including its purpose, any deceptions and how the data gathered will be used.
An attempt to control for participant variables in an independent groups design which ensures that each participant has the same chance of being in one condition as any other.
A consideration for external validity which assesses the extent to which a task undertaken by participants in a study is similar to real-life situations.
Any variables (other than the independent variable) identified before a study begins that seem likely to influence the dependent variable.
Dependent (paired) t-test
A parametric statistical test used to test for a significant difference between two conditions of a repeated measures design with interval/ratio data.
The hypothesis that states there will be a difference or relationship between two variables.
A type of study in which researchers manipulate an independent variable and measure a dependent variable to determine a cause-and-effect relationship.
A type of confounding variable where the results of the study could be attributed to the order of the conditions in the experiment rather than to the independent variable.
Processed data used to describe characteristics of conditions/variables. Includes measures of central tendency and measures of dispersion.
The degree to which the effects observed in an experiment (i.e., changes to the dependent variable) are due to the manipulation of the independent variable and not confounds.
A type of external validity which considers the degree to which the experimental environment resembles an environment where the experimental task would be typically undertaken in the real world.
A type of external validity which considers the degree to which the results can be generalised to the target population given the sample population of the study
The measurable variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
Consideration for the quality of a study and its results given the extent to which measures of the dependent variable vary across time (from one use to another) and between different researchers. Examples include test-retest and inter-rater.
An ethical principle of research whereby participants have the freedom to discontinue participation in a study at any time, including removal of data prior to deidentification.
An ethical principle of research whereby participants are not placed under any pressure or coercion to be involved in the study.
A method of controlling for experimenter bias and demand characteristics in an experimental design by ensuring that both the participants and researcher do not know which condition the participants are in.
Independent groups design
A type of experimental design where each participant experiences only one condition of the independent variable.
Determined by considering the p-value of an inferential test, this term in used in concluding whether there is likely a true effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable.
Independent (unpaired) t-test
A parametric statistical test used to test for a significant difference between two conditions of an independent groups design with interval/ratio data.
Any variables (other than the independent variable) identified after a study has been conducted which seem likely to have influenced the dependent variable.
The experimental variable that is manipulated; the variable whose effect on the dependent variable is being studied.
A threat to internal validity, this describes any aspects of a study that may have caused participants to behave as they think the researchers want or expect given the aim.
A method for recruiting participants into a study that relies solely on inviting people to take part and people nominating themselves.
Individual differences in the personal characteristics of research participants that, if not controlled, can confound the results of the experiment. May include age, gender, personality, etc depending on aim of the study.
Alpha value (0.05)
The cut-off for determining whether the difference between conditions or the relationship between variables is statistically significant or not.
Consideration for the quality of a study and its results given the extent to which the same measure consistently produces similar results for a participant.
Protection from harm
An ethical principle of research whereby participants are not required to do anything as part of the study which may cause immediate or long-term physical or psychological damage.
Repeated measures design
A type of experimental design where each participant experiences both of the conditions of the independent variable.
The inferential statistics which is calculated to determine whether the difference between conditions or the relationship between variables is statistically significant or not.
A method of controlling for demand characteristics in an experimental design by ensuring that the participants do not know which condition they are in.
A method for recruiting participants into a study where each person in the target population has an equal chance of being selected for the study (i.e., to be part of the sample population).
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