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Psych SAC revision
28th of may (Friday)
Terms in this set (62)
lipid layer around axon, acts as an insulator
The endpoint of a neuron where neurotransmitters are stored
Nucleus of a neuron
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
contains nucleus and organelles
cell body of a neuron
A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell
near the nucleus
Where is the golgi apparatus located?
Cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use
plant and animal cell
where is mitochondrion located
Branchlike parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information.
A bulb at the end of an axon in which neurotransmitter molecules are stored and released.
Most anterior section of the Cerebrum. Allows us to judge, reason, make decisions, plans, process new memories
Pre-frontal cortex function
occipital lobe function
somatic sensory processing
parietal lobe function
hearing and smell
temporal lobe function
anterior portion of the frontal lobe
prefrontal cortex location
back of brain
occipital lobe location
top back of brain
parietal lobe location
side of the head above the ears
temporal lobe location
A large structure of the hindbrain that controls fine motor skills.
Connects the brain and spinal cord
Connects the right and left hemispheres of the brain
function of corpus callosum
refers to the idea that certain brain functions (language, spatial skills etc.) are specialized to either the right or left hemispheres
what is hemispheric specialization
For example, language skills are primarily located in the left hemisphere while spatial reasoning and mechanical skills are associated with the right.
hemispheric specialization example
Developement/Cell Migration, Myelination, Homeostasis.
roles of glial cells
Glial cells maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide protection for neurons, neurons transmit nerve impulses
difference between glial cells and neurons
central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
Divisions of the Nervous System
brain and spinal cord
central nervous system
receives and processes sensory information, initiates responses, stores memories, generates thoughts and emotions
conducts signals to and from the brain, controls reflex activities
Spinal Cord (CNS)
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
peripheral nervous system
A subdivision of the peripheral nervous system. Controls involuntary activity of visceral muscles and internal organs and glands. (blood pressure)
autonomic nervous system
sends motor info from CNS to skeletal muscles and bringing sensory info from the body to the CNS in order for formulate voluntary movement.
somatic nervous system
The system of nerves which carries information from the body's receptors to the CNS
sensory system (somatic NS)
An efferent branch of the vertebrate peripheral nervous system composed of motor neurons that carry signals to skeletal muscles in response to external stimuli, such as a burn something hot.
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
parasympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
sympathetic nervous system
afferent, to CNS
efferent, away from CNS
Human behavior is a function of the interaction of biochemical, neurological, and genetic factors with environmental stimuli.
procedure that involves severing the corpus callosum to reduce the spread of epileptic seizures
split brain surgery
Organisms respond to different environments by changing how they act, look or function. When these responses improve the chances of survival, we call them adaptive plasticity.
process of adaptive plasticity
ability of the brain to compensate for lost function and/or to maximise remaining functions following injury
the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience
Movement disorder caused by the death of cells that generate dopamine in the basal ganglia and substantial nigra. Characterized by resting tremor, slowed movement, rigidity of facial muscles, and shuffling gait, and reduction in capacity for language
What is Parkinson's disease?
associated with degradation of substantia nigra, these neurons release dopamine to striatum of basal ganglia, almost no dopamine in substantia nigra, L-Dopa temporary treatment
Causes of Parkinson's
Tremors, Rigidity and falls
Motor symptoms of Parkinson's
Mood change, depression/anxiety, Sleep dysfunction
Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's
anticholinergics, dopamine replacements, dopamine agonists, MOA-B inhibitors, COMT inhibitors
treatments for Parkinson's
Dopamine is an inhibitory transmitter that stabilizes communication. NEUROTRANSMITTER
What is dopamine?
a chemical that travels from one neuron to another
What is a neurotransmitter?
trauma can include exhaustion, confusion, sadness, anxiety, agitation, numbness, dissociation, confusion, physical arousal, and blunted affect.
impact a trauma can have on a individuals biological functioning after injury.
socially acceptable, psychologically effective, and self-limited.
impact a trauma can have on a individuals psychological functioning after injury.
can be harder to manage when feeling strong emotions, such as anger or excitement. Common examples are: Feeling out of place and uncomfortable around other people.
impact a trauma can have on a individuals social functioning after injury.
The fight or flight response is an automatic physiological reaction to an event that is perceived, the sympathetic nervous system and triggers an acute stress response that these responses are evolutionary adaptations to increase chances of survival, counterbalanced by activity in the parasympathetic nervous system.
physiological responses of the sympathetic and para sympathetic response to FFF
neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord
neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
Management of sleep, arousal, and facial expressions.
controls heartbeat and breathing
relay station for sensory impulses, pain
water balance/bp/temp regulation/hunger/thirst/sex.
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